Scoliosis classification

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Scoliosis Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Scoliosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination



Echocardiography or Ultrasound

CT scan


Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Scoliosis classification On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Scoliosis classification

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Scoliosis classification

CDC on Scoliosis classification

Scoliosis classification in the news

Blogs on Scoliosis classification

Directions to Hospitals Treating Scoliosis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Scoliosis classification

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Rohan A. Bhimani, M.B.B.S., D.N.B., M.Ch.[2]


Scoliosis can be classified into congenital scoliosis (due to failure of vertebral formation or segmentation of affected vertebrae), idiopathic scoliosis(when the cause is not known) or neuromuscular scoliosis (due to loss of muscle strength or voluntary muscle control).

Congenital Scoliosis

Right supernumerary D10/D11 hemivertebra is noted associated with mild right dorsal scoliosis as well as mild focal kyphotic deformity. Case courtesy of Dr Mohammad A. ElBeialy,, rID: 41542
Based on radiological finding
Complete failure - hemivertebra, butterfly vertebra
Failure of formation Partial failure - wedged vertebra
Unilateral failure - longitudinal failure
Failure of segmentation Bilateral failure - block vertebra
Miscellaneous Formation and segmentation mixed failure
Based on formation of error and the structural combining of the anterior and posterior vertebral component
Anterior component Posterior component
Hemivertebra (hemipedicle) Fully segmented hemilamina
Semisegmented hemilamina
Spina bifida
Bilamina (complete or incomplete)
Butterfly lamina (bipedicle) Wedged lamina
Spina bifida
Lateral wedged vertebra (bipedicle) Wedged Lamina
Based on 3-D CT
Type 1 Solitary simple congenital malformation (unison)
  • Hemivertebra
  • Wedged vertebra
  • Butterfly vertebra
  • Others
Type 2 Multiple simple anomalies (unison)
  • Combination of hemivertebra, wedged vertebra and butterfly vertebra
  • Discreet, adjacent or others
Type 3 Complex anomalies (discordant)
  • Mixed failure
Type 4 Segmentation failure only

Idiopathic Scoliosis

Idiopathic Thoracolumbar scoliosis. Source: Case courtesy by: Dr. Rohan A. Bhimani
Based on Age of Onset
Based on Anatomical Level Involved

King and Moe defined five curve types:

  • Type 1: an S shape deformity, in which both curves are structural and cross the CSVL, with the lumbar curve being larger than the thoracic one
  • Type 2: an S shape deformity, in which both curves are structural and cross the CSVL, with the thoracic curve being larger or equal to the lumbar one
  • Type 3: major thoracic curve in which only the thoracic curve is structural and crosses the CSVL
  • Type 4: long C shape thoracic curve in which the fifth lumbar vertebra is centered over the sacrum and the fourth lumbar vertebra is tilted into the thoracic curve
  • Type 5: double thoracic curve

Neuromuscular Scoliosis


  1. Winter RB, Moe JH (1960,Jan 01). "Congenital Scoliosis A Study of 234 Patients Treated and Untreated Part I: Natural History". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 50 (1): 1-15. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. Imagama S, Kawakami N (2005). "Spatial relationships between a deformed vertebra and an adjacent vertebra in congenial scoliosis-failure of formation". J Jpn Scoliosis Soc. 20: 20–25.
  3. Azar, F., Canale, S., Beaty, J. & Campbell, W. (2017). Campbell's operative orthopaedics. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. Page: 1898-2028.
  4. King HA, Moe JH, Bradford DS, Winter RB (1983). "The selection of fusion levels in thoracic idiopathic scoliosis". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 65 (9): 1302–13. PMID 6654943.
  5. McCarthy, Richard E. (1999). "MANAGEMENT OF NEUROMUSCULAR SCOLIOSIS". Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 30 (3): 435–449. doi:10.1016/S0030-5898(05)70096-1. ISSN 0030-5898.