Polycystic kidney disease diagnostic study of choice

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: M. Khurram Afzal, MD [2]

Overview

The diagnostic study of choice for polycystic kidney disease is ultrasound. Findings on an ultrasound diagnostic of polycystic kidney disease include, atleast three unilateral or bilateral cysts in patients 15 - 39 years old, atleast two cysts in each kidney in patients 40 - 59 years old, atleast four cysts in each kidney in patients 60 years of age or older.

Diagnostic Study of Choice

Study of choice

The diagnostic study of choice for polycystic kidney disease is ultrasound.

Diagnostic results

The following findings on performing renal ultrasound are confirmatory for ADPKD:

  • At least three unilateral or bilateral cysts in patients 15 - 39 years old
  • At least two cysts in each kidney in patients 40 - 59 years old
  • At least four cysts in each kidney in patients 60 years of age or older

Note:

  • Ultrasonography is the preferred tool for the diagnosis of ADPKD due to its safety profile and low cost.
  • In patients with a positive family history, the diagnosis of ADPKD is based on the detection of bilateral fluid-filled renal cysts.
  • Ultrasound imaging is highly sensitive and can detect cysts > 1 cm in diameter.[1]

Diagnostic Criteria

According to the KDIGO guidelines and the unified criteria for ultasonographic assessment the following findings are diagnostic of ADPKD:[2][3]

  • At least three unilateral or bilateral cysts in patients 15 - 39 years old
  • At least two cysts in each kidney in patients 40 - 59 years old
  • At least four cysts in each kidney in patients 60 years of age or older

References

  1. O'Neill WC, Robbin ML, Bae KT, Grantham JJ, Chapman AB, Guay-Woodford LM; et al. (2005). "Sonographic assessment of the severity and progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: the Consortium of Renal Imaging Studies in Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP)". Am J Kidney Dis. 46 (6): 1058–64. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.08.026. PMID 16310571‎ Check |pmid= value (help).
  2. Chapman AB, Devuyst O, Eckardt KU, Gansevoort RT, Harris T, Horie S, Kasiske BL, Odland D, Pei Y, Perrone RD, Pirson Y, Schrier RW, Torra R, Torres VE, Watnick T, Wheeler DC (July 2015). "Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD): executive summary from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference". Kidney Int. 88 (1): 17–27. doi:10.1038/ki.2015.59. PMC 4913350. PMID 25786098.
  3. Pei Y, Obaji J, Dupuis A, Paterson AD, Magistroni R, Dicks E, Parfrey P, Cramer B, Coto E, Torra R, San Millan JL, Gibson R, Breuning M, Peters D, Ravine D (January 2009). "Unified criteria for ultrasonographic diagnosis of ADPKD". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 20 (1): 205–12. doi:10.1681/ASN.2008050507. PMC 2615723. PMID 18945943.

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