Polycystic kidney disease CT

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: M. Khurram Afzal, MD [2], Serge Korjian, Yazan Daaboul

Overview

Although ultrasonography is the modality of choice for diagnosing ADPKD mainly due to the low cost and lack of radiation exposure, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have higher resolutions and increased sensitivity for renal cysts less than 1 cm in diameter. Findings on CT scan include, numerous renal cysts of varying size and shape with little intervening parenchyma with water attenuation and very thin wall, reduction in sinus fat due to expansion of the cortex, occasional complex cysts with hyperdense appearance, with possible septations or calcifications, multiple homogeneous and hypoattenuating cystic lesions in the liver in patients with liver involvement.

CT scan

Renal CT scan may be helpful in the diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease. Findings on CT scan diagnostic of ADPKD include:


Note: Although ultrasonography is the modality of choice for diagnosing ADPKD mainly due to the low cost and lack of radiation exposure, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have higher resolutions and increased sensitivity for renal cysts less than 1 cm in diameter. PET/CT has also been used to confirm and locate cyst infections with varying degrees of success.[4]

CT Scan Images

Images courtesy of RadsWiki

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Chapman AB, Wei W (2011). "Imaging approaches to patients with polycystic kidney disease". Semin Nephrol. 31 (3): 237–44. doi:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2011.05.003. PMC 3143364. PMID 21784272.
  2. Levine E, Grantham JJ (1985). "High-density renal cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease demonstrated by CT". Radiology. 154 (2): 477–82. doi:10.1148/radiology.154.2.3966136. PMID 3966136.
  3. Mortelé KJ, Ros PR (2001). "Cystic focal liver lesions in the adult: differential CT and MR imaging features". Radiographics. 21 (4): 895–910. doi:10.1148/radiographics.21.4.g01jl16895. PMID 11452064.
  4. Jouret F, Lhommel R, Beguin C, Devuyst O, Pirson Y, Hassoun Z; et al. (2011). "Positron-emission computed tomography in cyst infection diagnosis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease". Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 6 (7): 1644–50. doi:10.2215/CJN.06900810. PMID 21700816.

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