Mediastinitis causes

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Mediastinitis Microchapters


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Differentiating Mediastinitis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

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Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ogheneochuko Ajari, MB.BS, MS [2], Anthony Gallo, B.S. [3]


Common causes of mediastinitis include bacterial and fungal infections.[1]


Common causes of mediastinitis include:[1]

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Cardiac surgery, coronary artery bypass surgery, pulmonary artery stenosis
Chemical / poisoning Caustic ingestion
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect No underlying causes
Ear Nose Throat Deep neck infection, Ludwig's angina, retropharyngeal abscess, Zenker's diverticulum
Endocrine Diabetes mellitus, Riedel's thyroiditis
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Boerhaave syndrome, bronchoscopy, endoscopy, esophageal foreign body, esophageal rupture, forceful or constant vomiting, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, Zenker's diverticulum
Genetic No underlying causes
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Iatrogenic, radiation therapy
Infectious Disease Actinomyces meyeri, anthrax, aspergillus, blastomyces, candida, deep neck infection, fibrosing mediastinitis, histoplasmosis, mycobacterium tuberculosis, odontogenic infections, retropharyngeal abscess, sclerosing mediastinitis, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus milleri, tonsilitis, wuchereria bancrofti
Musculoskeletal / Ortho No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional / Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Cancer
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Fibrosing mediastinitis, mycobacterium tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, sclerosing mediastinitis
Renal / Electrolyte Forceful or constant vomiting
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Retroperitoneal fibrosis, sarcoidosis
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Trauma
Urologic Retroperitoneal fibrosis
Dental Dental caries, odontogenic infections
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Martínez Vallina P, Espinosa Jiménez D, Hernández Pérez L, Triviño Ramírez A (2011). "[Mediastinitis]". Arch Bronconeumol. 47 Suppl 8: 32–6. doi:10.1016/S0300-2896(11)70065-5. PMID 23351519.
  2. Branquinho DF, Andrade DR, Almeida N, Sofia C (2014). "Mediastinitis by Actinomyces meyeri after oesophageal stent placement". BMJ Case Rep. 2014. doi:10.1136/bcr-2014-204499. PMID 24903727.
  3. Risnes I, Abdelnoor M, Veel T, Svennevig JL, Lundblad R, Rynning SE (2014). "Mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass grafting: the effect of vacuum-assisted closure versus traditional closed drainage on survival and re-infection rate". Int Wound J. 11 (2): 177–82. doi:10.1111/j.1742-481X.2012.01060.x. PMID 22925188.
  4. Celakovsky P, Kalfert D, Tucek L, Mejzlik J, Kotulek M, Vrbacky A; et al. (2014). "Deep neck infections: risk factors for mediastinal extension". Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 271 (6): 1679–83. doi:10.1007/s00405-013-2651-5. PMID 23925695.
  5. Chatterjee D, Bal A, Singhal M, Vijayvergiya R, Das A (2014). "Fibrosing mediastinitis due to Aspergillus with dominant cardiac involvement: report of two autopsy cases with review of literature". Cardiovasc Pathol. 23 (6): 354–7. doi:10.1016/j.carpath.2014.05.005. PMID 24998315.
  6. Koponen S, Sihvo E (2012). "[Mediastinitis in a patient with eating disorder]". Duodecim. 128 (12): 1289–91. PMID 22822605.
  7. Bross-Soriano D, Arrieta-Gómez JR, Prado-Calleros H, Schimelmitz-Idi J, Jorba-Basave S (2004). "Management of Ludwig's angina with small neck incisions: 18 years experience". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 130 (6): 712–7. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2003.09.036. PMID 15195057.
  8. ATKINSON M, BOTTRILL MB, EDWARDS AT, MITCHELL WM, PEET BG, WILLIAMS RE (1961). "Mucosal tears at the oesophagogastric junction (the Mallory-Weiss syndrome)". Gut. 2: 1–11. PMC 1413192. PMID 13684977.
  9. Bell Z, Menezes AA, Primrose WJ, McGuigan JA (2005). "Mediastinitis: a life-threatening complication of acute tonsillitis". J Laryngol Otol. 119 (9): 743–5. PMID 16156922.

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