Kawasaki disease epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Dildar Hussain, MBBS [2], Sabawoon Mirwais, M.B.B.S, M.D.[3]

Overview

Kawasaki disease (Kawasaki syndrome or KS) occurs worldwide, with the highest incidence in Japan, and it most often affects boys and younger children. KS may have a winter-spring seasonality, and community-wide outbreaks have been reported occasionally. In the continental United States, population-based and hospitalization studies have estimated an incidence of KS ranging from 9 to 19 per 100,000 children younger than 5 years of age. Approximately, 4248 hospitalizations for Kawasaki disease, of which 3277 (77%) were for children under 5 years of age, were estimated among children younger than 18 years of age in the United States in the year 2000.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Incidence

  • The incidence of Kawasaki disease is approximately 175 per 100,000 individuals in Japan.[1]
  • In the continental United States, population-based and hospitalization studies estimate an incidence ranging from 9 to 19 per 100,000 children under 5 years of age.[2]
  • The occurrence incidence of Kawasaki disease in the US is between 17.5 and 20.8 per 100,000 children < 5 years.[3]
  • Below is the list of the countries with the corresponding incidence rates of Kawasaki disease:
    • Japan: 243.1 and 264.8 per 100,000 in children younger than 5 years in 2011 and 2012, respectively.
    • South Korea: 134.4 cases per 100,000 for children under 5 years of age.[4]
    • Ireland: 15.2 per 100,000 children younger than 5 years.[5]
    • Finland:11.4 per 100,000 children younger than 5 years.[6]
    • Norway: 5.4 per 100,000 children younger than 5 years.
    • Sweden: 7.4 per 100,000 children younger than 5 years.

Prevalence

  • In 1999, the prevalence of Kawasaki disease was estimated to be in range of 5000 to 6000 in Japan.[7]

Age

  • Kawasaki disease commonly affects individuals younger than 5 years of age.[7]
  • 80% of patients with Kawasaki disease are younger than 5 years of age

Race

  • Kawasaki disease usually affects individuals of the Asian race.[7]
  • Pacific Islanders are also more commonly affected.

Gender

  • Males are more commonly affected by Kawasaki disease than females.[7]

References

  1. Kawasaki T (March 1967). "[Acute febrile mucocutaneous syndrome with lymphoid involvement with specific desquamation of the fingers and toes in children]". Arerugi (in Japanese). 16 (3): 178–222. PMID 6062087.
  2. https://www.cdc.gov/kawasaki/about.html
  3. Uehara R, Belay ED (2012). "Epidemiology of Kawasaki disease in Asia, Europe, and the United States". J Epidemiol. 22 (2): 79–85. doi:10.2188/jea.je20110131. PMC 3798585. PMID 22307434.
  4. Kim GB, Park S, Eun LY, Han JW, Lee SY, Yoon KL, Yu JJ, Choi JW, Lee KY (May 2017). "Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Kawasaki Disease in South Korea, 2012-2014". Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 36 (5): 482–485. doi:10.1097/INF.0000000000001474. PMID 27997519.
  5. Lynch M, Holman RC, Mulligan A, Belay ED, Schonberger LB (November 2003). "Kawasaki syndrome hospitalizations in Ireland, 1996 through 2000". Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22 (11): 959–63. doi:10.1097/01.inf.0000095194.83814.ee. PMID 14614367.
  6. Salo E, Griffiths EP, Farstad T, Schiller B, Nakamura Y, Yashiro M, Uehara R, Best BM, Burns JC (December 2012). "Incidence of Kawasaki disease in northern European countries". Pediatr Int. 54 (6): 770–2. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200X.2012.03692.x. PMC 3467350. PMID 22726311.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Yanagawa H, Nakamura Y, Ojima T, Yashiro M, Tanihara S, Oki I (January 1999). "Changes in epidemic patterns of Kawasaki disease in Japan". Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 18 (1): 64–6. PMID 9951983.

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