Ibogaine

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Ibogaine
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180px
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
E number{{#property:P628}}
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Chemical and physical data
FormulaC20H26N2O
Molar mass310.433 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point152 to 153 °C (Expression error: Unrecognized word "to". °F)

Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid, a long-acting hallucinogen which has gained attention due to its application in the treatment of opioid addiction and similar addiction syndromes. It occurs naturally in a number of dogbane plants, among them above all in Tabernanthe iboga, otherwise known as iboga.

Formulations

Pure crystalline ibogaine hydrochloride is the most standardized formulation dosing and typically must be produced by the semi-synthesis from voacangine in commercial laboratories. In Africa, Tabernanthe iboga is consumed as a stimulant by chewing the rootbark. In Bwiti religious ceremonies, the rootbark is pulverized and swallowed with water to produce intense psychoactive effects. Ibogaine is also available in a total alkaloid extract of the Tabernanthe iboga plant, which also contains all the other iboga alkaloids and thus has only about 1/5th the potency by weight as standardized ibogaine hydrochloride.[1]

Total alkaloid extracts of T. iboga are often loosely called "Indra extract". However, that name actually refers to a particular stock of about 44kg of an iboga extract manufactured by an unnamed European industrial manufacturer in 1981. This stock was later purchased by Carl Waltenburg, who distributed it under the name "Indra extract". Waltenburg used this extract to treat heroin addicts in Christiana, Denmark, a squatter village where heroin addiction was widespread in 1982.[2] Indra extract was offered for sale over the internet until 2006, when the Indra web presence disappeared. It is unclear whether the extracts sold as "Indra extract" are actually from Waltenburg's original stock, or whether any of that stock is even viable or in existence. Ibogaine and related indole compounds are susceptible to oxidation when exposed to oxygen[3] as opposed to their salt form which is stable. The exact methods and quality of the original Indra extraction was never documented, so the real composition of the product remains uncertain.

History

Ibogaine was first isolated from Tabernanthe iboga in 1901 by Dybowski and Landrin[4] and independently by Haller and Heckel in the same year. Samples of the plant were obtained from Gabon, Africa in the mid 1800s where it has been used in initiation rites of the Bwiti religion. The challenging total synthesis was accomplished by G. Büchi in 1966.[5] Since then, several further totally synthetic routes have been developed.[6] The use of ibogaine in treating substance use disorders in human subjects was first proposed by Howard Lotsof in U.S. Patent 4,499,096 which was awarded in 1985. Ibogaine's ability to attenuate opioid withdrawal confirmed in the rat was first published by Dzoljic et al. (1988).[7] Ibogaine's use in diminishing morphine self-administration in preclinical studies was shown by Glick et al. (1991)[8] and ibogaine's capacity to reduce cocaine self-administration in the rat was shown by Cappendijk et al. (1993).[9] Animal model support for ibogaine claims to treat alcohol dependence were established by Rezvani (1995).[10]

Data demonstrating ibogaine's efficacy in attenuating opioid withdrawal in drug dependent human subjects was published by Alper et al. (1999)[11] and Mash et al. (2000).[12] However, there have been as yet no peer-reviewed studies demonstrating any statistically significant long term improvement following ibogaine administration to humans with drug problems.

Effects

At low doses, ibogaine has a mild stimulant effect. At higher doses, temporary effects include hallucination and ataxia (uncoordinated, stumbling-like movement). The most studied long-term therapeutic effect is that ibogaine seems to catalyze partial or complete interruption of addiction to opioids. An integral effect is the alleviation of symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Research also suggests that ibogaine may be useful in treating dependence to other substances such as alcohol, methamphetamine, and nicotine, and may affect compulsive behavioral patterns not involving substance abuse or chemical dependence. Ibogaine has been used as an adjunct to psychotherapy by Claudio Naranjo, documented in his book The Healing Journey.[13]

Pharmacology

The pharmacology of ibogaine is quite complex, affecting many different neurotransmitter systems simultaneously.[14][15] Because of its fairly low potency at any of its target sites, ibogaine is used in doses anywhere from 5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight for minor effect to 30 mg/kg in the cases of strong polysubstance addiction. It is unknown whether doses greater than 30mg/kg in humans produce effects that are therapeutically beneficial, medically risky, or simply prolonged in duration.

Mechanism and Pharmacodynamics

Among recent proposals for ibogaine mechanisms of action is activation of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) pathway in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain. The work has principally been accomplished in preclinical ethanol research where 40 mg/kg of ibogaine caused increases of RNA expression of GDNF in keeping with reduction of ethanol intake in the rat, absent neurotoxicity or cell death.[16]

Ibogaine is a noncompetitive antagonist at α3β4 nicotinic receptors, binding with moderate affinity.[17] Several other α3β4 antagonists are known, and some of these such as bupropion (Wellbutrin or Zyban), and mecamylamine have been used for treating nicotine addiction. This α3β4-antagonism correlates quite well with the observed effect of interrupting addiction. Co-administration of ibogaine with other α3β4-antagonists such as 18-MC, dextromethorphan or mecamylamine had a stronger anti-addictive effect than when it was administered alone.[18] Since α3β4 channels and NMDA channels are related to each other and their binding sites within the lumen bind a range of same ligands (e.g. DXM, PCP),[19] some "older" sources suggested that ibogaine's anti-addictive properties may be (partly) due to it being an NMDA receptor antagonist.[20] However, ligands, like 18-MC, selective for α3β4- vs. NMDA-channels showed no drop-off in activity.

It is suspected that ibogaine's actions on the opioid and glutamatergic systems are also involved in its anti-addictive effects. Persons treated with ibogaine report a cessation of opioid withdrawal signs generally within an hour of administration.

Ibogaine is a weak 5HT2A receptor agonist[21] and although it is unclear how significant this action is for the anti-addictive effects of ibogaine, it is likely to be important for the hallucinogenic effects.[22] Ibogaine is also a sigma2 receptor agonist.[23]

Metabolites

Ibogaine is metabolized in the human body by cytochrome P450 2D6, and the major metabolite is noribogaine (12-hydroxyibogamine). Noribogaine is most potent as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor and acts as moderate κ- and weak µ-opioid receptor full agonist and has therefore also an aspect of an opiate replacement similar to compounds like methadone. Both ibogaine and noribogaine have a plasma half-life of around thirty minutes, although the half-life or noribogaine is slightly longer than the parent compound. It is proposed that ibogaine is deposited in fat and metabolized into noribogaine as it is released.[24] Noribogaine shows higher plasma levels than ibogaine and may therefore be detected for longer periods of time than ibogaine. Noribogaine is also more potent than ibogaine in rat drug discrimination assays when tested for the subjective effects of ibogaine.[25] Noribogaine differs from ibogaine in that it contains a hydroxy instead of a methoxy group at the 12 position.

Analogs

A synthetic derivative of ibogaine, 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) is a selective α3β4 antagonist that was developed collaboratively by the neurologist Stanley D. Glick (Albany) and the chemist Martin E. Kuehne (Vermont).[26]

Voacangine, a close natural analog of ibogaine found in the tree bark of the Voacanga africana tree, is a common ingredient in the semi-synthesis of ibogaine because it is more abundant and easily accessible than iboga rootbark.[27] Based on their structural similarity to ibogaine and 18-MC and their binding properties in vitro, it is likely that other alkaloidal components of T. iboga and V. africana such as voacangine, ibogamine and coronaridine also contribute to the anti-addictive properties of the extracts from these plants.

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Usage

Addiction Interruption

Proponents of ibogaine treatment for drug addiction have established formal and informal clinics or self-help groups in Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, France, Slovenia, the Netherlands, Brazil, South Africa, the United Kingdom and New Zealand where ibogaine is administered as an experimental drug. Although the full nature of Ibogaine is still emerging, it appears that the most effective treatment paradigm involves visionary doses of ibogaine of 10 to 20 mg/kg, producing an interruption of opiate withdrawal and craving. Many users of ibogaine report experiencing visual phenomena during a waking dream state, such as instructive replays of life events that led to their addiction, while others report therapeutic shamanic visions that help them conquer the fears and negative emotions that might drive their addiction. It is proposed that intensive counseling and therapy during the interruption period following treatment is of significant value. Some patients require a second or third treatment session with ibogaine over the course of the next 12 to 18 months as it will provide a greater efficacy in extinguishing the opiate addiction or other drug dependence syndrome. A minority of patients relapse completely into opiate addiction within days or weeks. A comprehensive article (Lotsof 1995) on the subject of ibogaine therapy, detailing the procedure, effects and aftereffects is found in, "Ibogaine in the Treatment of Chemical Dependence Disorders: Clinical Perspectives".[28]

Chronic pain management

In 1957, Jurg Schneider, a pharmacologist at CIBA, found that ibogaine potentiates morphine analgesia.[29] Further research was abandoned and no additional data was ever published by Ciba researchers on ibogaine/opioid interactions. Almost 50 years later Patrick Kroupa and Hattie Wells released the first treatment protocol for concomitant administration of ibogaine with opioids in human subjects indicating ibogaine reduced tolerance to opioid drugs.[30] Kroupa, et al., published their research in the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) Journal demonstrating that administration of low "maintenance" doses of ibogaine HCl with opioids decreases tolerance.

Side effects

At therapeutic doses, ibogaine has an active window of 24 to 48 hours, is often physically and mentally exhausting and produces ataxia for as long as twelve hours, in some cases even longer. Nausea that may lead to vomiting is not uncommon throughout the experience. Such unpleasant symptoms tend to reduce the attractiveness of ibogaine as a recreational drug at therapeutic doses, however, at lower doses ibogaine is known to have stimulant effects. Some users administer ibogaine by enema in order to avoid nausea.

In one study using dogs as the subject, ibogaine has been observed to increase sinus arrhythmia (the normal change in heart rate during respiration).[4] Ventricular ectopy has been observed in a minority of patients during ibogaine therapy. [5] It has been proposed that there is a theoretical risk of QT-interval prolongation following ibogaine administration, but no actual occurrence of this phenomenon has been published to date. [6]

There are 8 documented fatalities that have been loosely associated with ibogaine ingestion. [7]. Autopsies have failed to implicate ibogaine as the sole cause of death due to some patients having significant pre-existing medical problems, and some patients surreptitiously consuming other drugs such as heroin against medical indications during or after ibogaine treatment.

Research

An ibogaine research project was funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse in the early 1990s. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) abandoned efforts to continue this project into clinical studies in 1995, citing other reports that suggested a risk of brain damage with extremely high doses and fatal heart arrhythmia in patients having a history of health problems, as well as inadequate funding for ibogaine development within their budget. However, NIDA funding for ibogaine research continues in indirect grants often cited in peer reviewed ibogaine publications.

In addition, after years of work and a number of significant changes to the original protocol, on August 17, 2006, a MAPS-sponsored research team received "unconditional approval" from a Canadian Institutional Review Board (IRB) to proceed with a long-term observational case study that will examine changes in substance use in 20 consecutive people seeking ibogaine-based addiction treatment for opiate dependence at the Iboga Therapy House in Vancouver.

Legal status

Ibogaine and its salts were regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1967 pursuant to its enhanced authority to regulate stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens granted by the 1965 Drug Abuse Control Amendments (DACA) to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. In 1970, with the passage of the Controlled Substances Act, it was classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States, along with other psychedelics such as LSD and mescaline. Since that time, several other countries, including Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, and Switzerland, have also banned the sale and possession of ibogaine.

In early 2006, a non-profit foundation addressing the issue of providing ibogaine for the purpose of addiction interruption within establishment drug treatment care was formed in Sweden.[31]

Media references

Documentary and autobiographical

  • Ibogaine: Rite Of Passage is a documentary film about the use of ibogaine in Bwiti tradition and addiction medicine. [8]
  • Daniel Pinchbeck writes of his own experience with ibogaine (among other psychoactives) in Breaking Open The Head [9]
  • Ibogaine was the topic of a segment the American public radio series This American Life, Week of December 1, 2006. The show called "Sink or Swim" documented the story of a former addict who opened an underground addiction treatment service using ibogaine.

References in popular media

  • Hunter S. Thompson alleged in his book Fear and Loathing: On the Campaign Trail '72 [32] that United States Democratic Party presidential hopeful Edmund Muskie used ibogaine during his 1972 campaign. This is also voiced in 1972 articles in Rolling Stone magazine. Thompson also claimed to have used ibogaine himself.
  • In the movie Good Will Hunting, the character Skylar (a chemistry student) cites the complex and time-consuming task of assigning the proton spectrum for ibogaine as an excuse for declining a social invitation.
  • The X-Files, Season 8, Episode 7, "Via Negativa". Originally aired: 12/17/2000. A serial killer and cult leader uses ibogaine to leave his body and kill his victims.
  • CSI, Season 4, Episode 16, "Getting Off". Originally aired: 1/1/2004. Summary: An underground ibogaine treatment provider is murdered by dealers of morphine and cocaine who perceive ibogaine's anti-addictive properties as a threat to their business.
  • Journalist and author Daniel Pinchbeck has discussed ibogaine and firsthand experience with ibogaine in his books Breaking Open the Head and its follow-up 2012: The Return of Queztcoatl [10]
  • The Policy (1999) by Patrick Lynch incorporates ibogaine into the plot. One of the characters is sent to drug rehabilitation for a cocaine problem to keep him out of the way for some period of time while an insurance scam is accomplished but he opts for ibogaine therapy and returns home far earlier than anticipated only be to murdered.

See also

External links

References

  1. Jenks CW (2002)
  2. [1]
  3. a)Taylor WI (1965): "The Iboga and Voacanga Alkaloids" (Journal?), Pages 203, 207 and 208. Oxidation products: peroxides; indolenine, iboquine and iboluteine. pdf b) Also compare PMID 16959135
  4. J. Dybowski, E. Landrin (1901). "PLANT CHEMISTRY. Concerning Iboga, its excitement-producing properties, its composition, and the new alkaloid it contains, ibogaine". C. R. Acad. Sci. 133: 748. Retrieved 2006-06-23.
  5. G. Büchi, D.L. Coffen, Karoly Kocsis, P.E. Sonnet, and Frederick E. Ziegler (1966). "The Total Synthesis of Iboga Alkaloids" (pdf). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 88 (13): 3099–3109. Retrieved 2006-06-23.
  6. C. Frauenfelder (1999) Doctoral Thesis, page 24 (pdf)
  7. E.D. Dzoljic et al. (1988): "Effect of ibogaine on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in chronic morphine-dependent rats" Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 294, 64-70
  8. Glick S.D., Rossman K., Steindorf S., Maisonneuve I.M., and Carlson J.N. (1991). "Effects and aftereffects of ibogaine on morphine self-administration in rats". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 195 (3): 341–345. Retrieved 2006-06-24.
  9. Cappendijk SLT, Dzoljic MR (1993). "Inhibitory effects of ibogaine on cocaine self-administration in rats". European Journal of Pharmacology. 241: 261–265. Retrieved 2006-06-25.
  10. Rezvani, A., Overstreet D., and Lee, Y. (1995). "Attenuation of alcohol intake by ibogaine in three strains of alcohol preferring rats". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behaviour. 52: 615–620. Retrieved 2006-06-25.
  11. Alper et al. (1999) "Treatment of acute opioid withdrawal with ibogaine." Am J Addict. 1999 Summer;8(3):234-42 (pdf)
  12. D.C. Mash, et al. (2000). Ibogaine: Complex Pharmacokinetics, Concerns for Safety, and Preliminary Efficacy Measures (pdf). Neurobiological Mechanisms of Drugs of Abuse Volume 914 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, September 2000.
  13. C. Naranjo. The Healing Journey. Chapter V, Ibogaine: Fantasy and Reality, 197-231, Pantheon Books, Div. Random House,ISBN 0394488261, New York (1973)
  14. P. Popik, P. Skolnick (1998). Pharmacology of Ibogaine and Ibogaine-Related Alkaloids. The Alkaloids 52, Chapter 3, 197-231, Academic Press, Editor: G.A. Cordell
  15. K.R. Alper (2001). Ibogaine: A Review. The Alkaloids 56, 1-38, Academic Press (pdf)
  16. He, Dao-Yao et al. (2005): "Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Mediates the Desirable Actions of the Anti-Addiction Drug Ibogaine against Alcohol Consumption." Journal of Neuroscience, 25(3), pp. 619–628. Fulltext
  17. Glick SD, Maisonneuve IM, Kitchen BA, Fleck MW. Antagonism of alpha 3 beta 4 nicotinic receptors as a strategy to reduce opioid and stimulant self-administration. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2002 Mar 1;438(1-2):99-105.
  18. Glick SD, Maisonneuve IM, Kitchen BA. Modulation of nicotine self-administration in rats by combination therapy with agents blocking alpha 3 beta 4 nicotinic receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2002 Jul 19;448(2-3):185-91.
  19. Fryer JD, Lukas RJ. Noncompetitive functional inhibition at diverse, human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes by bupropion, phencyclidine, and ibogaine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1999 Jan;288(1):88-92.
  20. Popik P, Layer RT, Skolnick P (1994): "The putative anti-addictive drug ibogaine is a competitive inhibitor of [3H]MK-801 binding to the NMDA receptor complex." Psychopharmacology (Berl), 114(4), 672-4. Abstract
  21. Glick SD et al. (1999): "(±)-18-Methoxycoronaridine: A Novel Iboga Alkaloid Congener Having Potential Anti-Addictive Efficacy." CNS Drug Reviews, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 27-42, see p. 35. Fulltext
  22. Helsley S, Fiorella D, Rabin RA, Winter JC. Behavioral and biochemical evidence for a nonessential 5-HT2A component of the ibogaine-induced discriminative stimulus. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour. 1998 Feb;59(2):419-25.
  23. Mach RH, Smith CR, Childers SR (1995): "Ibogaine possesses a selective affinity for sigma 2 receptors." Life Sciences, 57(4), PL57-62. Abstract
  24. Lindsay B. Hough, Sandra M. Pearl and Stanley D. Glick. Tissue Distribution of Ibogaine After Intraperitoneal and Subscutaneous Administration. Life Sciences 58(7) (1996): 119–122. Abstract
  25. C Zubaran MD, M Shoaib Ph.D, IP Stolerman Ph.D, J Pablo MS and DC Mash Ph.D. Noribogaine Generalization to the Ibogaine Stimulus: Correlation with Noribogaine Concentration in Rat Brain. Neuropsychopharmacology (1999) 21 119-126.10.1038/sj.npp.1395327. [2]
  26. Christopher J. Pace, Stanley D. Glick, Isabelle M. Maisonneuve, Li-Wen Heb, Patrick A. Jokiel, Martin E. Kuehne, Mark W. Fleck. Novel iboga alkaloid congeners block nicotinic receptors and reduce drug self-administration. European Journal of Pharmacology 492 (2004): 159–167.
  27. [3]
  28. H.S. Lotsof (1995). Ibogaine in the Treatment of Chemical Dependence Disorders: Clinical Perspectives (Originally published in MAPS Bulletin (1995) V(3):19-26)
  29. Jurg Schneider (assignee: Ciba Pharmaceuticals), Tabernanthine, Ibogaine Containing Analgesic Compositions. US Patent No. 2,817,623 (1957) (pdf)
  30. Patrick K. Kroupa, Hattie Wells (2005): Ibogaine in the 21st Century. Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies. Volume XV, Number 1: 21-25 (pdf)
  31. Stiftelsen Iboga´s web site
  32. Thompson, Hunter S. Fear and Loathing: On the Campaign Trail '72. (San Francisco, Straight Arrow Books, 1973; Warner Books, 1985, ISBN 0-446-31364-5)

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