Bupropion

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Bupropion
Black Box Warning
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Chetan Lokhande, M.B.B.S [2]

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Black Box Warning

Suicidal thoughts and behaviours; and neuropsychiatry reactions
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
*Increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults taking antidepressants.
  • Monitor for worsening and emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors.
  • Serious neuropsychiatric events have been reported in patients taking bupropion for smoking cessation.

Overview

Bupropion is a tetracyclics and unicyclics that is FDA approved for the {{{indicationType}}} of major depressive disorder (MDD) depression, associated with seasonal affective disorder; prophylaxis. There is a Black Box Warning for this drug as shown here. Common adverse reactions include suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents and young adults, neuropsychiatric symptoms and suicide risk in smoking cessation treatment, seizure, hypertension, activation of mania or hypomania, psychosis and other neuropsychiatric reactions, hypersensitivity reactions.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Major depressive disorder (MDD)

  • To minimize the risk of seizure, increase the dose gradually [see Warnings and Precautions]. Increases in dose should not exceed 100 mg per day in a 3‑day period. Bupropion Tablets should be swallowed whole and not crushed, divided, or chewed. Bupropion may be taken with or without food.
  • The recommended starting dose is 200 mg per day, given as 100 mg twice daily. After 3 days of dosing, the dose may be increased to 300 mg per day, given as 100 mg 3 times daily, with at least 6 hours between successive doses. Dosing above 300 mg per day may be accomplished using the 75- or 100-mg tablets.
  • A maximum of 450 mg per day, given in divided doses of not more than 150 mg each, may be considered for patients who show no clinical improvement after several weeks of treatment at 300 mg per day. Administer the 100‑mg tablet 4 times daily to not exceed the limit of 150 mg in a single dose.
  • It is generally agreed that acute episodes of depression require several months or longer of antidepressant drug treatment beyond the response in the acute episode. It is unknown whether the dose of bupropion needed for maintenance treatment is identical to the dose that provided an initial response. Periodically reassess the need for maintenance treatment and the appropriate dose for such treatment.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information about Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Bupropion in Adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information about Off-Label Non-Guideline-Supported Use of Bupropion in Adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

There is limited information about FDA-labeled indications and dosage information for Bupropion in Pediatric patients.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information about Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Bupropion in Pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information about Off-Label Non-Guideline-Supported Use of Bupropion in Pediatric patients.

Contraindications

Warnings

Suicidal thoughts and behaviours; and neuropsychiatry reactions
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
*Increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults taking antidepressants.
  • Monitor for worsening and emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors.
  • Serious neuropsychiatric events have been reported in patients taking bupropion for smoking cessation.

Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

  • Worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior.
  • Pooled analyses of short‑term placebo‑controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and others) show that these drugs
  • Increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18 to 24) with MDD and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term clinical trials did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared with placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared with placebo in adults aged 65 and older.
  • The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short‑term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4,400 subjects. The pooled analyses of placebo‑controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short‑term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 subjects. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger subjects for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug vs. placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1,000 subjects treated) are provided in Table 1
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
  • It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression.
  • All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases [see Boxed Warning].
  • The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality.
  • Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms.
  • Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for MDD or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to healthcare providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for Bupropion should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Suicide Risk in Smoking Cessation Treatment

  • Bupropion is not approved for smoking cessation treatment; however, bupropion HCl sustained-release is approved for this use. Serious neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported in patients taking bupropion for smoking cessation. These have included changes in mood (including depression and mania), psychosis, hallucinations, paranoia, delusions, homicidal ideation, hostility, agitation, aggression, anxiety, and panic, as well as suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Observe patients for the occurrence of neuropsychiatric reactions. Instruct patients to contact a healthcare professional if such reactions occur.
  • In many of these cases, a causal relationship to bupropion treatment is not certain, because depressed mood can be a symptom of nicotine withdrawal. However, some of the cases occurred in patients taking bupropion who continued to smoke.

Seizure

Hypertension

  • Treatment with Bupropion can result in elevated blood pressure and hypertension. Assess blood pressure before initiating treatment with Bupropion, and monitor periodically during treatment. The risk of hypertension is increased if Bupropion is used concomitantly with MAOIs or other drugs that increase dopaminergic or noradrenergic activity [see Contraindications].
  • Data from a comparative trial of the sustained-release formulation of bupropion HCl, nicotine transdermal system (NTS), the combination of sustained-release bupropion plus NTS, and placebo as an aid to smoking cessation suggest a higher incidence of treatment-emergent hypertension in patients treated with the combination of sustained-release bupropion and NTS. In this trial, 6.1% of subjects treated with the combination of sustained-release bupropion and NTS had treatment‑emergent hypertension compared to 2.5%, 1.6%, and 3.1% of subjects treated with sustained-release bupropion, NTS, and placebo, respectively. The majority of these subjects had evidence of pre-existing hypertension. Three subjects (1.2%) treated with the combination of sustained-release bupropion and NTS and 1 subject (0.4%) treated with NTS had study medication discontinued due to hypertension compared with none of the subjects treated with sustained-release bupropion or placebo. Monitoring of blood pressure is recommended in patients who receive the combination of bupropion and nicotine replacement.
  • In a clinical trial of bupropion immediate-release in MDD subjects with stable congestive heart failure (N = 36), bupropion was associated with an exacerbation of pre-existing hypertension in 2 subjects, leading to discontinuation of bupropion treatment. There are no controlled trials assessing the safety of bupropion in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable cardiac disease.

Activation of Mania/Hypomania

Psychosis and Other Neuropsychiatric Reactions

  • Depressed patients treated with bupropion have had a variety of neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, psychosis, concentration disturbance, paranoia, and confusion. Some of these patients had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. In some cases, these symptoms abated upon dose reduction and/or withdrawal of treatment. Instruct patients to contact a healthcare professional if such reactions occur.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Central Nervous System

Confusion (major depressive disorder, 8% ), dizziness (6% to 11%), headache (25% to 34% ), insomnia (11% to 20% )

Cardiovascular

Tachycardia (major depressive disorder, 11% )

Respiratory

Nasopharyngitis (seasonal affective disorder, 13% ), pharyngitis (major depressive disorder, 3% to 11% ), upper respiratory infection (seasonal affective disorder, 9% )

Gastrointestinal

Abdominal pain (2% to 9%), constipation (5% to 10%), nausea (13% to 18%), xerostomia (17% to 26%)

Endocrine metabolic

Weight gain (2% to 9% ), weight loss (major depressive disorder, 14% to 19% )

Psychiatric

Agitation (2% to 9%)

Postmarketing Experience

Central Nervous System

Aggression, coma, completed suicide, delirium, dream abnormalities, paranoid ideation, paresthesia, restlessness, suicide attempt, unmasking of tardive dyskinesia

Respiratory

Hypertension (in some cases severe), orthostatic hypotension, third degree heart block.

Gastrointestinal

Esophagitis, hepatitis.

Body (General)

Arthralgia, myalgia, and fever with rash and other symptoms suggestive of delayed hypersensitivity. These symptoms may resemble serum sickness.

Endocrine

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia.

Hemic and Lymphatic

Ecchymosis, leukocytosis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia. Altered PT and/or INR, infrequently associated with hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications, were observed when bupropion was coadministered with warfarin.

Musculoskeletal

Muscle rigidity/fever/rhabdomyolysis, muscle weakness.

Skin and Appendages

Stevens‑Johnson syndrome, angioedema, exfoliative dermatitis, urticaria.

Special Senses

Tinnitus, increased intraocular pressure.

Drug Interactions

  • Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Bupropion
  • Bupropion is primarily metabolized to hydroxybupropion by CYP2B6. Therefore, the potential exists for drug interactions between bupropion and drugs that are inhibitors or inducers of CYP2B6.
  • Inhibitors of CYP2B6:Ticlopidine and Clopidogrel: Concomitant treatment with these drugs can increase bupropion exposure but decrease hydroxybupropion exposure. Based on clinical response, dosage adjustment of bupropion may be necessary when coadministered with CYP2B6 inhibitors (e.g., ticlopidine or clopidogrel) [see Clinical Pharmacology].
  • Inducers of CYP2B6:Ritonavir, Lopinavir, and Efavirenz: Concomitant treatment with these drugs can decrease bupropion and hydroxybupropion exposure. Dosage increase of bupropion may be necessary when coadministered with ritonavir, lopinavir, or efavirenz [see Clinical Pharmacology] but should not exceed the maximum recommended dose.
  • Carbamazepine, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin: While not systematically studied, these drugs may induce the metabolism of bupropion and may decrease bupropion exposure [see Clinical Pharmacology]. If bupropion is used concomitantly with a CYP inducer, it may be necessary to increase the dose of bupropion, but the maximum recommended dose should not be exceeded.
  • Potential for Bupropion to Affect Other Drugs
  • Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6: Bupropion and its metabolites (erythrohydrobupropion, threohydrobupropion, hydroxybupropion) are CYP2D6 inhibitors. Therefore, coadministration of bupropion with drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 can increase the exposures of drugs that are substrates of CYP2D6. Such drugs include certain antidepressants (e.g., venlafaxine, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, and sertraline), antipsychotics (e.g., haloperidol, risperidone, thioridazine), beta-blockers (e.g., metoprolol), and Type 1C antiarrhythmics (e.g., propafenone and flecainide). When used concomitantly with bupropion, it may be necessary to decrease the dose of these CYP2D6 substrates, particularly for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index.
  • Drugs that require metabolic activation by CYP2D6 to be effective (e.g., tamoxifen) theoretically could have reduced efficacy when administered concomitantly with inhibitors of CYP2D6 such as bupropion. Patients treated concomitantly with bupropion and such drugs may require increased doses of the drug see Clinical Pharmacology .
  • Drugs That Lower Seizure Threshold
  • Use extreme caution when coadministering bupropion with other drugs that lower seizure threshold (e.g., other bupropion products, antipsychotics, antidepressants, theophylline, or systemic corticosteroids). Use low initial doses and increase the dose gradually [see Contraindications and Warnings and Precautions].
  • Bupropion inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine. Concomitant use of MAOIs and bupropion is contraindicated because there is an increased risk of hypertensive reactions if bupropion is used concomitantly with MAOIs. Studies in animals demonstrate that the acute toxicity of bupropion is enhanced by the MAO inhibitor phenelzine. At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI intended to treat depression and initiation of treatment with bupropion. Conversely, at least 14 days should be allowed after stopping bupropion before starting an MAOI antidepressant [see Dosage and Administration and Contraindications].
  • Drug-Laboratory Test Interactions
  • False-positive urine immunoassay screening tests for amphetamines have been reported in patients taking bupropion. This is due to lack of specificity of some screening tests. False-positive test results may result even following discontinuation of bupropion therapy. Confirmatory tests, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, will distinguish bupropion from amphetamines.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): C

  • Risk Summary
  • Data from epidemiological studies of pregnant women exposed to bupropion in the first trimester indicate no increased risk of congenital malformations overall. All pregnancies, regardless of drug exposure, have a background rate of 2% to 4% for major malformations, and 15% to 20% for pregnancy loss. No clear evidence of teratogenic activity was found in reproductive developmental studies conducted in rats and rabbits; however, in rabbits, slightly increased incidences of fetal malformations and skeletal variations were observed at doses approximately equal to the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) and greater and decreased fetal weights were seen at doses twice the MRHD and greater. Bupropion should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
  • Clinical Considerations
  • Consider the risks of untreated depression when discontinuing or changing treatment with antidepressant medications during pregnancy and postpartum.
  • Human Data
  • Data from the international bupropion Pregnancy Registry (675 first-trimester exposures) and a retrospective cohort study using the United Healthcare database (1,213 first trimester exposures) did not show an increased risk for malformations overall.
  • No increased risk for cardiovascular malformations overall has been observed after bupropion exposure during the first trimester. The prospectively observed rate of cardiovascular malformations in pregnancies with exposure to bupropion in the first trimester from the international Pregnancy Registry was 1.3% (9 cardiovascular malformations/675 first-trimester maternal bupropion exposures), which is similar to the background rate of cardiovascular malformations (approximately 1%). Data from the United Healthcare database and a case-control study (6,853 infants with cardiovascular malformations and 5,763 with non-cardiovascular malformations) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) did not show an increased risk for cardiovascular malformations overall after bupropion exposure during the first trimester.
  • Study findings on bupropion exposure during the first trimester and risk for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) are inconsistent and do not allow conclusions regarding a possible association. The United Healthcare database lacked sufficient power to evaluate this association; the NBDPS found increased risk for LVOTO (n = 10; adjusted OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2, 5.7), and the Slone Epidemiology case control study did not find increased risk for LVOTO.
  • Study findings on bupropion exposure during the first trimester and risk for ventricular septal defect (VSD) are inconsistent and do not allow conclusions regarding a possible association. The Slone Epidemiology Study found an increased risk for VSD following first trimester maternal bupropion exposure (n = 17; adjusted OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3, 5.0) but did not find increased risk for any other cardiovascular malformations studied (including LVOTO as above). The NBDPS and United Healthcare database study did not find an association between first trimester maternal bupropion exposure and VSD.
  • For the findings of LVOTO and VSD, the studies were limited by the small number of exposed cases, inconsistent findings among studies, and the potential for chance findings from multiple comparisons in case control studies.
  • Animal Data
  • In studies conducted in rats and rabbits, bupropion was administered orally during the period of organogenesis at doses of up to 450 and 150 mg/kg/day, respectively (approximately 11 and 7 times the MRHD, respectively, on a mg/m2basis). No clear evidence of teratogenic activity was found in either species; however, in rabbits, slightly increased incidences of fetal malformations and skeletal variations were observed at the lowest dose tested (25 mg/kg/day, approximately equal to the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) and greater. Decreased fetal weights were observed at 50 mg/kg and greater.
  • When rats were administered bupropion at oral doses of up to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 7 times the MRHD on a mg/m2basis) prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation, there were no apparent adverse effects on offspring development.


Pregnancy Category (AUS): There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Bupropion in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Bupropion during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • Nursing Mothers
  • Bupropion and its metabolites are present in human milk. In a lactation study of 10 women, levels of orally dosed bupropion and its active metabolites were measured in expressed milk. The average daily infant exposure (assuming 150 mL/kg daily consumption) to bupropion and its active metabolites was 2% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose. Exercise caution when bupropion is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population have not been established [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions].

Geriatic Use

  • Geriatric Use
  • Of the approximately 6,000 subjects who participated in clinical trials with bupropion sustained-release tablets (depression and smoking cessation trials), 275 were aged ≥65 years and 47 were aged ≥75 years. In addition, several hundred subjects aged ≥65 years participated in clinical trials using the immediate-release formulation of bupropion (depression trials). No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. Reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
  • Bupropion is extensively metabolized in the liver to active metabolites, which are further metabolized and excreted by the kidneys. The risk of adverse reactions may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, it may be necessary to consider this factor in dose selection; it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Dosage and Administration , Use in Specific Populations , and Clinical Pharmacology ].

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Bupropion with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Bupropion with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

  • Renal Impairment
  • Consider a reduced dose and/or dosing frequency of bupropion in patients with renal impairment (Glomerular Filtration Rate: <90 mL/min). Bupropion and its metabolites are cleared renally and may accumulate in such patients to a greater extent than usual. Monitor closely for adverse reactions that could indicate high bupropion or metabolite exposures [see Dosage and Administration and Clinical Pharmacology ].

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Bupropion with respect to Hepatic Impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Bupropion with respect to Reproductive Potential.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Bupropion with respect to Immunocompromise.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

There is limited information pertaining to drug administration of Bupropion in patients.

Monitoring

There is limited information pertaining to drug monitoring of Bupropion in patients.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information pertaining to the IV compatibility of Bupropion in patients.

Overdosage

  • Human Overdose Experience
  • Overdosage Management
Consult a Certified Poison Control Center for up-to-date guidance and advice. Telephone numbers for certified poison control centers are listed in the Physician’s Desk Reference (PDR). Call 1-800-222-1222 or refer to www.poison.org.
There are no known antidotes for bupropion. In case of an overdose, provide supportive care, including close medical supervision and monitoring. Consider the possibility of multiple drug overdose. Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation, and ventilation. Monitor cardiac rhythm and vital signs. Induction of emesis is not recommended.

Pharmacology

Bupropion20.png
Bupropion21.gif
1 : 1 mixture (racemate)Bupropion
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(±)-2-(tert-Butylamino)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)propan-1-one
Identifiers
CAS number 34841-39-9
ATC code N06AX12
PubChem 444
DrugBank DB01156
Chemical data
Formula C13H18ClNO 
Mol. mass 239.74 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Protein binding 84% (bupropion), 77% (hydroxybupropion metabolite), 42% (threohydrobupropion metabolite)[1]
Metabolism Hepatic (mostly CYP2B6-mediated hydroxylation, but with some contributions from CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, CYP2E1)[1][2][3]
Half life 11 hours (short-term dosing; parent compound)[4] 14-21 hours (chronic dosing; parent compound - depends on formulation),[1][3][5] 20 hours (hydroxybupropion), 33 hours (erythrohydrobupropion), 37 hours (threohydrobupropion)[1][3][5][6]
Excretion Renal (87%; 0.5% unchanged), Faecal (10%)[2][3][5]
Therapeutic considerations
Licence data

US

Pregnancy cat.

B2(AU) C(US)

Legal status

Prescription Only (S4)(AU) ?(CA) POM(UK) -only(US)

Dependence Liability low
Routes Oral

Mechanism of Action

The exact mechanism of the antidepressant action of bupropion is not known, but is presumed to be related to noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic mechanisms. Bupropion is a relatively weak inhibitor of the neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine, and does not inhibit the reuptake of serotonin. Bupropion does not inhibit monoamine oxidase.

Structure

Bupropion hydrochloride, an antidepressant of the aminoketone class, is chemically unrelated to tricyclic, tetracyclic, selective serotonin re‑uptake inhibitor, or other known antidepressant agents. Its structure closely resembles that of diethylpropion; it is related to phenylethylamines. It is designated as (±)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]-1-propanone hydrochloride. The molecular weight is 276.2. The molecular formula is C13H18ClNO•HCl. Bupropion hydrochloride powder is white, crystalline, and highly soluble in water. It has a bitter taste and produces the sensation of local anesthesia on the oral mucosa. The structural formula is:

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Bupropion is supplied for oral administration as 75‑mg (yellow‑gold) and 100‑mg (red) film‑coated tablets. Each tablet contains the labeled amount of bupropion hydrochloride and the inactive ingredients: 75‑mg tablet – D&C Yellow No. 10 Lake, FD&C Yellow No. 6 Lake, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, talc, and titanium dioxide; 100‑mg tablet – FD&C Red No. 40 Lake, FD&C Yellow No. 6 Lake, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, talc, and titanium dioxide.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Bupropion Pharmacodynamics in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

  • Bupropion is a racemic mixture. The pharmacological activity and pharmacokinetics of the individual enantiomers have not been studied. The mean elimination half-life (±SD) of bupropion after chronic dosing is 21 (±9) hours, and steady-state plasma concentrations of bupropion are reached within 8 days.
  • Absorption
  • The absolute bioavailability of bupropion in humans has not been determined because an intravenous formulation for human use is not available. However, it appears likely that only a small proportion of any orally administered dose reaches the systemic circulation intact. In rat and dog studies, the bioavailability of bupropion ranged from 5% to 20%.
  • In humans, following oral administration of bupropion, peak plasma bupropion concentrations are usually achieved within 2 hours. Plasma bupropion concentrations are dose‑proportional following single doses of 100 to 250 mg; however, it is not known if the proportionality between dose and plasma level is maintained in chronic use.
  • Distribution
  • In vitro tests show that bupropion is 84% bound to human plasma proteins at concentrations up to 200 mcg/mL. The extent of protein binding of the hydroxybupropion metabolite is similar to that for bupropion, whereas the extent of protein binding of the threohydrobupropion metabolite is about half that seen with bupropion.
  • Metabolism
  • Bupropion is extensively metabolized in humans. Three metabolites are active: hydroxybupropion, which is formed via hydroxylation of the tert-butyl group of bupropion, and the amino-alcohol isomers threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion, which are formed via reduction of the carbonyl group. In vitro findings suggest that CYP2B6 is the principal isoenzyme involved in the formation of hydroxybupropion, while cytochrome P450 enzymes are not involved in the formation of threohydrobupropion. Oxidation of the bupropion side chain results in the formation of a glycine conjugate of meta-chlorobenzoic acid, which is then excreted as the major urinary metabolite. The potency and toxicity of the metabolites relative to bupropion have not been fully characterized. However, it has been demonstrated in an antidepressant screening test in mice that hydroxybupropion is one‑half as potent as bupropion, while threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion are 5-fold less potent than bupropion. This may be of clinical importance because the plasma concentrations of the metabolites are as high as or higher than those of bupropion.
  • Following a single dose in humans, peak plasma concentrations of hydroxybupropion occur approximately 3 hours after administration of bupropion and are approximately 10 times the peak level of the parent drug at steady state. The elimination half‑life of hydroxybupropion is approximately 20 (±5) hours, and its AUC at steady state is about 17 times that of bupropion. The times to peak concentrations for the erythrohydrobupropion and threohydrobupropion metabolites are similar to that of the hydroxybupropion metabolite. However, their elimination half‑lives are longer, 33 (±10) and 37 (±13) hours, respectively, and steady‑state AUCs are 1.5 and 7 times that of bupropion, respectively.
  • Bupropion and its metabolites exhibit linear kinetics following chronic administration of 300 to 450 mg per day.
  • Elimination
  • Following oral administration of 200 mg of 14C-bupropion in humans, 87% and 10% of the radioactive dose were recovered in the urine and feces, respectively. Only 0.5% of the oral dose was excreted as unchanged bupropion.
  • Population Subgroups
  • Factors or conditions altering metabolic capacity (e.g., liver disease, congestive heart failure [CHF], age, concomitant medications, etc.) or elimination may be expected to influence the degree and extent of accumulation of the active metabolites of bupropion. The elimination of the major metabolites of bupropion may be affected by reduced renal or hepatic function because they are moderately polar compounds and are likely to undergo further metabolism or conjugation in the liver prior to urinary excretion.
  • Renal Impairment
  • There is limited information on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion in patients with renal impairment. An inter-trial comparison between normal subjects and subjects with end-stage renal failure demonstrated that the parent drug Cmax and AUC values were comparable in the 2 groups, whereas the hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion metabolites had a 2.3- and 2.8-fold increase, respectively, in AUC for subjects with end-stage renal failure. A second trial, comparing normal subjects and subjects with moderate‑to‑severe renal impairment (GFR 30.9 10.8 mL/min) showed that after a single 150-mg dose of sustained-release bupropion, exposure to bupropion was approximately 2-fold higher in subjects with impaired renal function, while levels of the hydroxybupropion and threo/erythrohydrobupropion (combined) metabolites were similar in the 2 groups. Bupropion is extensively metabolized in the liver to active metabolites, which are further metabolized and subsequently excreted by the kidneys. The elimination of the major metabolites of bupropion may be reduced by impaired renal function. bupropion should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment and a reduced frequency and/or dose should be considered [see Use in Specific Populations].
  • Hepatic Impairment
  • The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion was characterized in 2 single-dose trials, one in subjects with alcoholic liver disease and one in subjects with mild-to-severe cirrhosis. The first trial demonstrated that the half‑life of hydroxybupropion was significantly longer in 8 subjects with alcoholic liver disease than in 8 healthy volunteers (32 ± 14 hours versus 21 ± 5 hours, respectively). Although not statistically significant, the AUCs for bupropion and hydroxybupropion were more variable and tended to be greater (by 53% to 57%) in volunteers with alcoholic liver disease. The differences in half‑life for bupropion and the other metabolites in the 2 groups were minimal.
  • The second trial demonstrated no statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its active metabolites in 9 subjects with mild-to-moderate hepatic cirrhosis compared with 8 healthy volunteers. However, more variability was observed in some of the pharmacokinetic parameters for bupropion (AUC, Cmax, and Tmax) and its active metabolites (t½) in subjects with mild-to-moderate hepatic cirrhosis. In subjects with severe hepatic cirrhosis, significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its metabolites were seen (Table 3).
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  • During a chronic dosing trial with bupropion in 14 depressed subjects with left ventricular dysfunction (history of CHF or an enlarged heart on x-ray), there was no apparent effect on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion or its metabolites, compared with healthy volunteers.
  • Age
  • The effects of age on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its metabolites have not been fully characterized, but an exploration of steady‑state bupropion concentrations from several depression efficacy trials involving subjects dosed in a range of 300 to 750 mg per day, on a 3 times daily schedule, revealed no relationship between age (18 to 83 years) and plasma concentration of bupropion. A single‑dose pharmacokinetic trial demonstrated that the disposition of bupropion and its metabolites in elderly subjects was similar to that of younger subjects. These data suggest there is no prominent effect of age on bupropion concentration; however, another single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics trial suggested that the elderly are at increased risk for accumulation of bupropion and its metabolites [see Use in Specific Populations].
  • Gender
  • Pooled analysis of bupropion pharmacokinetic data from 90 healthy male and 90 healthy female volunteers revealed no sex-related differences in the peak plasma concentrations of bupropion. The mean systemic exposure (AUC) was approximately 13% higher in male volunteers compared with female volunteers. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown.
  • Smokers: The effects of cigarette smoking on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion were studied in 34 healthy male and female volunteers; 17 were chronic cigarette smokers and 17 were nonsmokers. Following oral administration of a single 150-mg dose of bupropion, there were no statistically significant differences in Cmax, half-life, Tmax, AUC, or clearance of bupropion or its active metabolites between smokers and nonsmokers.
  • Drug Interactions:Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Bupropion: In vitro studies indicate that bupropion is primarily metabolized to hydroxybupropion by CYP2B6. Therefore, the potential exists for drug interactions between bupropion and drugs that are inhibitors or inducers of CYP2B6. In addition, in vitro studies suggest that paroxetine, sertraline, norfluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and nelfinavir inhibit the hydroxylation of bupropion.
  • Inhibitors of CYP2B6
    Ticlopidine, Clopidogrel: In a trial in healthy male volunteers, clopidogrel 75 mg once daily or ticlopidine 250 mg twice daily increased exposures (Cmax and AUC) of bupropion by 40% and 60% for clopidogrel, and by 38% and 85% for ticlopidine, respectively. The exposures (Cmax and AUC) of hydroxybupropion were decreased 50% and 52%, respectively, by clopidogrel, and 78% and 84%, respectively, by ticlopidine. This effect is thought to be due to the inhibition of the CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation.
  • Prasugrel is a weak inhibitor of CYP2B6. In healthy subjects, prasugrel increased bupropion Cmax and AUC values by 14% and 18%, respectively, and decreased Cmax and AUC values of hydroxybupropion, an active metabolite of bupropion, by 32% and 24%, respectively.
  • The threohydrobupropion metabolite of bupropion does not appear to be produced by cytochrome P450 enzymes. The effects of concomitant administration of cimetidine on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its active metabolites were studied in 24 healthy young male volunteers. Following oral administration of bupropion 300 mg with and without cimetidine 800 mg, the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and hydroxybupropion were unaffected. However, there were 16% and 32% increases in the AUC and Cmax, respectively of the combined moieties of threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion.
  • Citalopram did not affect the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its three metabolites.
  • Inducers of CYP2B6
  • In a healthy volunteer trial, ritonavir 100 mg twice daily reduced the AUC and Cmax of bupropion by 22% and 21%, respectively. The exposure of the hydroxybupropion metabolite was decreased by 23%, the threohydrobupropion decreased by 38%, and the erythrohydrobupropion decreased by 48%. In a second healthy volunteer trial, ritonavir 600 mg twice daily decreased the AUC and the Cmax of bupropion by 66% and 62%, respectively. The exposure of the hydroxybupropion metabolite was decreased by 78%, the threohydrobupropion decreased by 50%, and the erythrohydrobupropion decreased by 68%.
  • In another healthy volunteer trial, lopinavir 400 mg/ritonavir 100 mg twice daily decreased bupropion AUC and Cmax by 57%. The AUC and Cmax of hydroxybupropion were decreased by 50% and 31%, respectively.
  • In a trial in healthy volunteers, efavirenz 600 mg once daily for 2 weeks reduced the AUC and Cmax of bupropion by approximately 55% and 34%, respectively. The AUC of hydroxybupropion was unchanged, whereas Cmax of hydroxybupropion was increased by 50%.
  • While not systematically studied, these drugs may induce the metabolism of bupropion.
  • Potential for bupropion to Affect Other Drugs
  • Animal data indicated that bupropion may be an inducer of drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans. In one trial, following chronic administration of bupropion 100 mg three times daily to 8 healthy male volunteers for 14 days, there was no evidence of induction of its own metabolism. Nevertheless, there may be potential for clinically important alterations of blood levels of co-administered drugs.
  • Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6
  • In vitro, bupropion and its metabolites (erythrohydrobupropion, threohydrobupropion, hydroxybupropion) are CYP2D6 inhibitors. In a clinical trial of 15 male subjects (ages 19 to 35 years) who were extensive metabolizers of CYP2D6, bupropion 300 mg per day followed by a single dose of 50 mg desipramine increased the Cmax, AUC, and t1/2 of desipramine by an average of approximately 2-, 5-, and 2-fold, respectively. The effect was present for at least 7 days after the last dose of bupropion. Concomitant use of bupropion with other drugs metabolized by CYP2D6 has not been formally studied.
  • Although citalopram is not primarily metabolized by CYP2D6, in one trial bupropion increased the Cmax and AUC of citalopram by 30% and 40%, respectively.
  • Multiple oral doses of bupropion had no statistically significant effects on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine in 12 healthy volunteers.

Nonclinical Toxicology

  • Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
  • Lifetime carcinogenicity studies were performed in rats and mice at bupropion doses up to 300 and 150 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately 7 and 2 times the MRHD, respectively, on a mg/m2 basis. In the rat study there was an increase in nodular proliferative lesions of the liver at doses of 100 to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 to 7 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis); lower doses were not tested. The question of whether or not such lesions may be precursors of neoplasms of the liver is currently unresolved. Similar liver lesions were not seen in the mouse study, and no increase in malignant tumors of the liver and other organs was seen in either study.
  • Bupropion produced a positive response (2 to 3 times control mutation rate) in 2 of 5 strains in the Ames bacterial mutagenicity assay. Bupropion produced an increase in chromosomal aberrations in 1 of 3 in vivo rat bone marrow cytogenetic studies.
  • A fertility study in rats at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day revealed no evidence of impaired fertility.

Clinical Studies

The efficacy of bupropion in the treatment of major depressive disorder was established in two 4‑week, placebo‑controlled trials in adult inpatients with MDD (Trials 1 and 2 in Table 4) and in one 6‑week, placebo‑controlled trial in adult outpatients with MDD (Trial 3 in Table 4). In the first trial, the dose range of bupropion was 300 mg to 600 mg per day administered in 3 divided doses; 78% of subjects were treated with doses of 300 mg to 450 mg per day. The trial demonstrated the efficacy of bupropion as measured by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) total score, the HDRS depressed mood item (item 1), and the Clinical Global Impressions-severity score (CGI-S). The second trial included 2 doses of bupropion (300 and 450 mg per day) and placebo. This trial demonstrated the effectiveness of bupropion for only the 450‑mg-per-day dose. The efficacy results were statistically significant for the HDRS total score and the CGI-S score, but not for HDRS item 1. In the third trial, outpatients were treated with 300 mg per day of bupropion. This trial demonstrated the efficacy of bupropion as measured by the HDRS total score, the HDRS item 1, the Montgomery‑Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the CGI-S score, and the CGI-Improvement Scale (CGI-I) score. Effectiveness of bupropion in long‑term use, that is, for more than 6 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials.

Table 4. Efficacy of bupropion for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder

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How Supplied

  • bupropion Tablets, 75 mg of bupropion hydrochloride, are yellow‑gold, round, biconvex tablets printed with “bupropion 75” in bottles of 100 (NDC 0173-0177-55).
  • Bupropion Tablets, 100 mg of bupropion hydrochloride, are red, round, biconvex tablets printed with “bupropion 100” in bottles of 100 (NDC 0173-0178-55).

Storage

  • Store at room temperature, 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light and moisture.

Images

Drug Images

Aplenzin NDC 00245810.jpg

Drug Name: Aplenzin
Ingredient(s): bupropion hydrobromide[bupropion]
Imprint: BR;174
Dosage: 174 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 8
Score: 1
NDC:00245810

Drug Label Author: sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC

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Aplenzin NDC 00245811.jpg

Drug Name: Aplenzin
Ingredient(s): bupropion hydrobromide[bupropion]
Imprint: BR;348
Dosage: 348 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 9
Score: 1
NDC:00245811

Drug Label Author: sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC

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Aplenzin NDC 00245812.jpg

Drug Name: Aplenzin
Ingredient(s): bupropion hydrobromide[bupropion]
Imprint: BR;522
Dosage: 522 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:00245812

Drug Label Author: sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC

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BUDEPRION NDC 00935351.jpg

Drug Name: BUDEPRION
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: 682
Dosage: 300 mg
Color(s): Yellow
Shape: Oval
Size (mm): 17
Score: 1
NDC:00935351

Drug Label Author: TEVA Pharmaceuticals USA Inc

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BUDEPRION NDC 00935501.jpg

Drug Name: BUDEPRION
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: G;2442
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): Yellow
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:00935501

Drug Label Author: TEVA Pharmaceuticals USA Inc

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BUDEPRION NDC 00935502.jpg

Drug Name: BUDEPRION
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: G;2444
Dosage: 150 mg
Color(s): Yellow
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:00935502

Drug Label Author: TEVA Pharmaceuticals USA Inc

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BUPROBAN NDC 00935703.jpg

Drug Name: BUPROBAN
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: G;2444
Dosage: 150 mg
Color(s): Yellow
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:00935703

Drug Label Author: TEVA Pharmaceuticals USA Inc

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BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE NDC 604290308.jpg

Drug Name: BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: A102
Dosage: 300 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 9
Score: 1
NDC:604290308

Drug Label Author: Golden State Medical Supply, Inc.

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BuPROPion Hydrochloride NDC 05913540.jpg

Drug Name: BuPROPion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: WPI;858
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:05913540

Drug Label Author: Watson Laboratories, Inc.

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BuPROPion Hydrochloride NDC 05913541.jpg

Drug Name: BuPROPion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: WPI;839
Dosage: 150 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:05913541

Drug Label Author: Watson Laboratories, Inc.

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BuPROPion Hydrochloride NDC 05913542.jpg

Drug Name: BuPROPion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: WPI;3385
Dosage: 200 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 13
Score: 1
NDC:05913542

Drug Label Author: Watson Laboratories, Inc.

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 01850410.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: E;over;410
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): Blue
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 8
Score: 1
NDC:01850410

Drug Label Author: Eon Labs, Inc.

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 01850415.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: E;over;415
Dosage: 150 mg
Color(s): Purple
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:01850415

Drug Label Author: Eon Labs, Inc.

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 03780433.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: M;433
Dosage: 75 mg
Color(s): Pink
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:03780433

Drug Label Author: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 03780435.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: M;435
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): Blue
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 12
Score: 1
NDC:03780435

Drug Label Author: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 05913331.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: WPI;3331
Dosage: 150 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 8
Score: 1
NDC:05913331

Drug Label Author: Watson Laboratories, Inc.

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 05913332.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: WPI;3332
Dosage: 300 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:05913332

Drug Label Author: Watson Laboratories, Inc.

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 07811053.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: GG929
Dosage: 75 mg
Color(s): Purple
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:07811053

Drug Label Author: Sandoz Inc

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 07811064.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: GG930
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): Purple
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:07811064

Drug Label Author: Sandoz Inc

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 433530735.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: A;171
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): Yellow
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:433530735

Drug Label Author: Aphena Pharma Solutions - Tennessee, Inc.

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 433530767.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: GG930
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): Purple
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:433530767

Drug Label Author: Aphena Pharma Solutions - Tennessee, Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 604290305.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: A160
Dosage: 150 mg
Color(s): Purple
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:604290305

Drug Label Author: Golden State Medical Supply, Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 604290306.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: A161
Dosage: 200 mg
Color(s): Red
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:604290306

Drug Label Author: Golden State Medical Supply, Inc.

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 604290946.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: M;433
Dosage: 75 mg
Color(s): Pink
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:604290946

Drug Label Author: Golden State Medical Supply, Inc

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 604290947.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: M;435
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): Blue
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 12
Score: 1
NDC:604290947

Drug Label Author: Golden State Medical Supply, Inc

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 675440892.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: GG929
Dosage: 75 mg
Color(s): Purple
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:675440892

Drug Label Author: Aphena Pharma Solutions - Tennessee, Inc.

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 677670133.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: A;133
Dosage: 150 mg
Color(s): Yellow
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:677670133

Drug Label Author: Actavis South Atlantic LLC

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 677670135.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: A;135
Dosage: 200 mg
Color(s): Yellow
Shape: Oval
Size (mm): 17
Score: 1
NDC:677670135

Drug Label Author: Actavis South Atlantic LLC

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Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 677670141.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: 141
Dosage: 150 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 8
Score: 1
NDC:677670141

Drug Label Author: Actavis South Atlantic LLC

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 677670142.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: 142
Dosage: 300 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Oval
Size (mm): 17
Score: 1
NDC:677670142

Drug Label Author: Actavis South Atlantic LLC

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Bupropion Hydrochloride NDC 677670171.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: A;171
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): Yellow
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:677670171

Drug Label Author: Actavis South Atlantic LLC

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Bupropion hydrochloride NDC 05913543.jpg

Drug Name: Bupropion hydrochloride
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: WPI;867
Dosage: 150 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:05913543

Drug Label Author: Watson Laboratories, Inc.

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WELLBUTRIN NDC 01730135.jpg

Drug Name: WELLBUTRIN
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: WELLBUTRIN;SR;150
Dosage: 150 mg
Color(s): Purple
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:01730135

Drug Label Author: GlaxoSmithKline LLC

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WELLBUTRIN NDC 01730177.jpg

Drug Name: WELLBUTRIN
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: WELLBUTRIN;75
Dosage: 75 mg
Color(s): Yellow
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:01730177

Drug Label Author: GlaxoSmithKline LLC

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WELLBUTRIN NDC 01730178.jpg

Drug Name: WELLBUTRIN
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: WELLBUTRIN;100
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): Red
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 12
Score: 1
NDC:01730178

Drug Label Author: GlaxoSmithKline LLC

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WELLBUTRIN NDC 01730722.jpg

Drug Name: WELLBUTRIN
Ingredient(s): bupropion hydrochloride[bupropion]
Imprint: WELLBUTRIN;SR;200
Dosage: 200 mg
Color(s): Pink
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 12
Score: 1
NDC:01730722

Drug Label Author: GlaxoSmithKline LLC

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WELLBUTRIN NDC 01730947.jpg

Drug Name: WELLBUTRIN
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: WELLBUTRIN;SR;100
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): Blue
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 10
Score: 1
NDC:01730947

Drug Label Author: GlaxoSmithKline LLC

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WELLBUTRIN NDC 01870730.jpg

Drug Name: WELLBUTRIN
Ingredient(s): bupropion hydrochloride[bupropion]
Imprint: WELLBUTRIN;XL;150
Dosage: 150 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 7
Score: 1
NDC:01870730

Drug Label Author: Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC

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WELLBUTRIN NDC 01870731.jpg

Drug Name: WELLBUTRIN
Ingredient(s): bupropion hydrochloride[bupropion]
Imprint: WELLBUTRIN;XL;300
Dosage: 300 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 9
Score: 1
NDC:01870731

Drug Label Author: Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC

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WELLBUTRIN NDC 644550730.jpg

Drug Name: WELLBUTRIN
Ingredient(s): bupropion hydrochloride[bupropion]
Imprint: WELLBUTRIN;XL;150
Dosage: 150 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 7
Score: 1
NDC:644550730

Drug Label Author: BTA Pharmaceuticals

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
WELLBUTRIN NDC 644550731.jpg

Drug Name: WELLBUTRIN
Ingredient(s): bupropion hydrochloride[bupropion]
Imprint: WELLBUTRIN;XL;300
Dosage: 300 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 9
Score: 1
NDC:644550731

Drug Label Author: BTA Pharmaceuticals

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
ZYBAN NDC 01730556.jpg

Drug Name: ZYBAN
Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE[BUPROPION]
Imprint: ZYBAN;150
Dosage: 150 mg
Color(s): Purple
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 11
Score: 1
NDC:01730556

Drug Label Author: GlaxoSmithKline LLC

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.

Package and Label Display Panel

Bupropion label.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
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This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

IMPORTANT WARNING

Bupropion

(Bupropion hydrochloride) Tablets

Read this Medication Guide carefully before you start taking bupropion and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking with your healthcare provider about your medical condition or your treatment. If you have any questions about bupropion, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.

IMPORTANT: Be sure to read the three sections of this Medication Guide. The first section is about the risk of suicidal thoughts and actions with antidepressant medicines; the second section is about the risk of changes in thinking and behavior, depression and suicidal thoughts or actions with medicines used to quit smoking; and the third section is entitled “What Other Important Information Should I Know About bupropion?”

  • Antidepressant Medicines, Depression and Other Serious Mental Illnesses, and Suicidal Thoughts or Actions

This section of the Medication Guide is only about the risk of suicidal thoughts and actions with antidepressant medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider or your family member’s healthcare provider about:

  • All risks and benefits of treatment with antidepressant medicines
  • All treatment choices for depression or other serious mental illness

What is the most important information I should know about antidepressant medicines, depression and other serious mental illnesses, and suicidal thoughts or actions?

  • Antidepressant medicines may increase suicidal thoughts or actions in some children, teenagers, or young adults within the first few months of treatment.
  • Depression or other serious mental illnesses are the most important causes of suicidal thoughts and actions. Some people may have a particularly high risk of having suicidal thoughts or actions. These include people who have (or have a family history of) bipolar illness (also called manic-depressive illness) or suicidal thoughts or actions.
  • How can I watch for and try to prevent suicidal thoughts and actions in myself or a family member?
  • Pay close attention to any changes, especially sudden changes, in mood, behaviors, thoughts, or feelings. This is very important when an antidepressant medicine is started or when the dose is changed.
  • Call your healthcare provider right away to report new or sudden changes in mood, behavior, thoughts, or feelings.
  • Keep all follow-up visits with your healthcare provider as scheduled. Call the healthcare provider between visits as needed, especially if you have concerns about symptoms.

Call your healthcare provider right away if you or your family member has any of the following symptoms, especially if they are new, worse, or worry you:

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

What else do I need to know about antidepressant medicines?

  • Never stop an antidepressant medicine without first talking to a healthcare provider. Stopping an antidepressant medicine suddenly can cause other symptoms.
  • Antidepressants are medicines used to treat depression and other illnesses. It is important to discuss all the risks of treating depression and also the risks of not treating it. Patients and their families or other caregivers should discuss all treatment choices with the healthcare provider, not just the use of antidepressants.
  • Antidepressant medicines have other side effects. Talk to the healthcare provider about the side effects of the medicine prescribed for you or your family member.
  • Antidepressant medicines can interact with other medicines. Know all of the medicines that you or your family member takes. Keep a list of all medicines to show the healthcare provider. Do not start new medicines without first checking with your healthcare provider.
  • It is not known if bupropion is safe and effective in children under the age of 18.

Quitting Smoking, Quit-Smoking Medications, Changes in Thinking and Behavior, Depression, and Suicidal Thoughts or Actions

  • This section of the Medication Guide is only about the risk of changes in thinking and behavior, depression and suicidal thoughts or actions with drugs used to quit smoking.
  • Although bupropion is not a treatment for quitting smoking, it contains the same active ingredient (bupropion hydrochloride) as ZYBAN® which is used to help patients quit smoking.
  • Some people have had changes in behavior, hostility, agitation, depression, suicidal thoughts or actions while taking bupropion to help them quit smoking. These symptoms can develop during treatment with bupropion or after stopping treatment with bupropion.
  • If you, your family member, or your caregiver notice agitation, hostility, depression, or changes in thinking or behavior that are not typical for you, or you have any of the following symptoms, stop taking bupropion and call your healthcare provider right away:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • When you try to quit smoking, with or without bupropion, you may have symptoms that may be due to nicotine withdrawal, including urge to smoke, depressed mood, trouble sleeping, irritability, frustration, anger, feeling anxious, difficulty concentrating, restlessness, decreased heart rate, and increased appetite or weight gain. Some people have even experienced suicidal thoughts when trying to quit smoking without medication. Sometimes quitting smoking can lead to worsening of mental health problems that you already have, such as depression.
  • Before taking bupropion, tell your healthcare provider if you have ever had depression or other mental illnesses. You should also tell your healthcare provider about any symptoms you had during other times you tried to quit smoking, with or without bupropion.

What Other Important Information Should I Know About bupropion?

  • Seizures: There is a chance of having a seizure (convulsion, fit) with bupropion, especially in people:

with certain medical problems. who take certain medicines.

  • The chance of having seizures increases with higher doses of bupropion. For more information, see the sections “Who should not take bupropion?” and “What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking bupropion?” Tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions and all the medicines you take. Do not take any other medicines while you are taking bupropion unless your healthcare provider has said it is okay to take them.
  • If you have a seizure while taking bupropion, stop taking the tablets and call your healthcare provider right away. Do not take bupropion again if you have a seizure.
  • High blood pressure (hypertension). Some people get high blood pressure that can be severe, while taking bupropion. The chance of high blood pressure may be higher if you also use nicotine replacement therapy (such as a nicotine patch) to help you stop smoking.
  • Manic episodes. Some people may have periods of mania while taking bupropion, including:
  • Greatly increased energy
  • Severe trouble sleeping
  • Racing thoughts
  • Reckless behavior
  • Unusually grand ideas
  • Excessive happiness or irritability
  • Talking more or faster than usual
  • If you have any of the above symptoms of mania, call your healthcare provider.
  • Unusual thoughts or behaviors. Some patients have unusual thoughts or behaviors while taking bupropion, including delusions (believe you are someone else), hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not there), paranoia (feeling that people are against you), or feeling confused. If this happens to you, call your healthcare provider.
  • Severe allergic reactions. Some people can have severe allergic reactions to bupropion. Stop taking bupropion and call your healthcare provider right away if you get a rash, itching, hives, fever, swollen lymph glands, painful sores in the mouth or around the eyes, swelling of the lips or tongue, chest pain, or have trouble breathing. These could be signs of a serious allergic reaction.

What is bupropion?

Bupropion is a prescription medicine used to treat adults with a certain type of depression called major depressive disorder.

Who should not take bupropion?

  • Do not take bupropion if you
  • have or had a seizure disorder or epilepsy.
  • have or had an eating disorder such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia.
  • are taking any other medicines that contain bupropion, including ZYBAN (used to help people stop smoking) APLENZIN®, FORFIVO XL™, bupropion SR®, or bupropion XL®. Bupropion is the same active ingredient that is in bupropion.
  • drink a lot of alcohol and abruptly stop drinking, or use medicines called sedatives (these make you sleepy), benzodiazepines, or anti-seizure medicines, and you stop using them all of a sudden.
  • take a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you are not sure if you take an MAOI, including the antibiotic linezolid.
  • do not take an MAOI within 2 weeks of stopping bupropion unless directed to do so by your healthcare provider.
  • do not start bupropion if you stopped taking an MAOI in the last 2 weeks unless directed to do so by your healthcare provider.
  • are allergic to the active ingredient in bupropion, bupropion, or to any of the inactive ingredients. See the end of this Medication Guide for a complete list of ingredients in bupropion.

What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking bupropion?

Tell your healthcare provider if you have ever had depression, suicidal thoughts or actions, or other mental health

problems. See “Antidepressant Medicines, Depression and Other Serious Mental Illnesses, and Suicidal Thoughts or Actions.”

  • Tell your healthcare provider about your other medical conditions including if you:
  • have liver problems, especially cirrhosis of the liver.
  • have kidney problems.
  • have, or have had, an eating disorder, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia.
  • have had a head injury.
  • have had a seizure (convulsion, fit).
  • have a tumor in your nervous system (brain or spine).
  • have had a heart attack, heart problems, or high blood pressure.
  • are a diabetic taking insulin or other medicines to control your blood sugar.
  • drink alcohol.
  • abuse prescription medicines or street drugs.
  • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant.
  • are breastfeeding. bupropion passes into your milk in small amounts
  • Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription, over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Many medicines increase your chances of having seizures or other serious side effects if you take them while you are taking bupropion.

How should I take bupropion?

  • Take bupropion exactly as prescribed by your healthcare provider.
  • Take bupropion at the same time each day.
  • Take your doses of bupropion at least 6 hours apart.
  • Do not chew, cut, or crush bupropion tablets.
  • You may take bupropion with or without food.
  • If you miss a dose, do not take an extra dose to make up for the dose you missed. Wait and take your next dose at the regular time. This is very important. Too much bupropion can increase your chance of having a seizure.
  • If you take too much bupropion, or overdose, call your local emergency room or poison control center right away.
  • Do not take any other medicines while taking bupropion unless your healthcare provider has told you it is okay.
  • If you are taking bupropion for the treatment of major depressive disorder, it may take several weeks for you to feel that bupropion is working. Once you feel better, it is important to keep taking bupropion exactly as directed by your healthcare provider. Call your healthcare provider if you do not feel bupropion is working for you.
  • Do not change your dose or stop taking bupropion without talking with your healthcare provider first.

What should I avoid while taking bupropion?

  • Limit or avoid using alcohol during treatment with bupropion. If you usually drink a lot of alcohol, talk with your healthcare provider before suddenly stopping. If you suddenly stop drinking alcohol, you may increase your risk of having seizures.
  • Do not drive a car or use heavy machinery until you know how bupropion affects you. bupropion can affect your ability to do these things safely.

What are possible side effects of bupropion?

  • See “What Other Important Information Should I Know About bupropion?”
  • Bupropion can cause serious side effects.
  • The most common side effects of bupropion include:
  • Nervousness
  • Dry mouth
  • Constipation
  • Headache
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Heavy sweating
  • Shakiness (tremor)
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Blurred vision
  • Fast heartbeat
  • If you have nausea, take your medicine with food. If you have trouble sleeping, do not take your medicine too close to bedtime.
  • Tell your healthcare provider right away about any side effects that bother you.
  • These are not all the possible side effects of bupropion. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.
  • Call your healthcare provider for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1‑800-FDA-1088.
  • You may also report side effects to GlaxoSmithKline at 1-888-825-5249.

How should I store bupropion?

  • Store bupropion at room temperature between 59°F and 86°F (15°C to 30°C).
  • Keep bupropion Tablets dry and out of the light.
  • Keep bupropion and all medicines out of the reach of children.

General Information about bupropion

  • Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use bupropion for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give bupropion to other people, even if they have the same symptoms you have. It may harm them.
  • If you take a urine drug screening test, bupropion may make the test result positive for amphetamines. If you tell the person giving you the drug screening test that you are taking bupropion, they can do a more specific drug screening test that should not have this problem.
  • This Medication Guide summarizes important information about bupropion. If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for information about bupropion that is written for healthcare professionals.

What are the ingredients in bupropion?

  • Active ingredient: bupropion hydrochloride.
  • Inactive ingredients: 75‑mg tablet – D&C Yellow No. 10 Lake, FD&C Yellow No. 6 Lake, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, talc, and titanium dioxide; 100‑mg tablet – FD&C Red No. 40 Lake, FD&C Yellow No. 6 Lake, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, talc, and titanium dioxide.

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Use With Alcohol
  • In postmarketing experience, there have been rare reports of adverse neuropsychiatric events or reduced alcohol tolerance in patients who were drinking alcohol during treatment with bupropion. The consumption of alcohol during treatment with bupropion should be minimized or avoided.

Brand Names

There is limited information regarding Bupropion Brand Names in the drug label.

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Bupropion Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Zyban 150 mg prolonged release film-coated tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC)". electronic Medicines Compendium. GlaxoSmithKline UK. 1 August 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Prexaton Bupropion hydrochloride PRODUCT INFORMATION". TGA eBusiness Services. Ascent Pharma Pty Ltd. 2 October 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE tablet, film coated [Sandoz Inc]". DailyMed. Sandoz, Inc. April 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  4. Template:Cite isbn
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "PRODUCT INFORMATION ZYBAN® SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS". TGA eBusiness Services. Aspen Pharmacare Australia Pty Ltd. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  6. "bupropion (bupropion hydrochloride) tablet, film coated [GlaxoSmithKline LLC]". DailyMed. GlaxoSmithKline LLC. March 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
















































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