Heart transplantation risk factors

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Heart transplantation Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Complications and Prognosis





Criteria for Cardiac Transplantation

Equitable Distribution of Donor Hearts to those Awaiting Transplantation and the Process of Being Listed for a Transplant


Medical Therapy



Electrocardiogram and Pacing After Cardiac Transplantation

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:


There are no established risk factors that lead to cardiac transplantation. The prognosis of the patient post-transplantation depends on various donor and recipient factors.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for poor outcome post-transplantation can be due to donor-specific characteristics, recipient-specific characteristics, and risk factors due to interactions between the donor and recipient.

Common risk factors

Donor factors

Both the following factors are associated with an increased one-year mortality rate in the recipient.

Recipient factors

Less common risk factors


  1. Potapov, Evgenij V.; Loebe, Matthias; H??bler, Michael; Musci, Michele; Hummel, Manfred; Weng, Yu-guo; Hetzer, Roland (1999). "MEDIUM-TERM RESULTS OF HEART TRANSPLANTATION USING DONORS OVER 63 YEARS OF AGE1". Transplantation. 68 (12): 1834–1838. doi:10.1097/00007890-199912270-00002. ISSN 0041-1337.
  2. Khush, Kiran K.; Cherikh, Wida S.; Chambers, Daniel C.; Goldfarb, Samuel; Hayes, Don; Kucheryavaya, Anna Y.; Levvey, Bronwyn J.; Meiser, Bruno; Rossano, Joseph W.; Stehlik, Josef (2018). "The International Thoracic Organ Transplant Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: Thirty-fifth Adult Heart Transplantation Report—2018; Focus Theme: Multiorgan Transplantation". The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 37 (10): 1155–1168. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2018.07.022. ISSN 1053-2498.
  3. Cooper LB, Mentz RJ, Edwards LB, Wilk AR, Rogers JG, Patel CB; et al. (2017). "Amiodarone use in patients listed for heart transplant is associated with increased 1-year post-transplant mortality". J Heart Lung Transplant. 36 (2): 202–210. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2016.07.009. PMC 5241253. PMID 27520780.
  4. Singh TP, Almond CS, Semigran MJ, Piercey G, Gauvreau K (2012). "Risk prediction for early in-hospital mortality following heart transplantation in the United States". Circ Heart Fail. 5 (2): 259–66. doi:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.111.965996. PMID 22308287.
  5. Radovancevic B, Poindexter S, Birovljev S, Velebit V, McAllister HA, Duncan JM; et al. (1990). "Risk factors for development of accelerated coronary artery disease in cardiac transplant recipients". Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 4 (6): 309–12, discussion 313. doi:10.1016/1010-7940(90)90207-g. PMID 2361019.
  6. Prendergast TW, Furukawa S, Beyer AJ, Browne BJ, Eisen HJ, Jeevanandam V (1998). "The role of gender in heart transplantation". Ann Thorac Surg. 65 (1): 88–94. doi:10.1016/s0003-4975(97)01105-3. PMID 9456101.

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