Heart transplantation causes

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Heart transplantation Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Complications and Prognosis





Criteria for Cardiac Transplantation

Equitable Distribution of Donor Hearts to those Awaiting Transplantation and the Process of Being Listed for a Transplant


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Electrocardiogram and Pacing After Cardiac Transplantation

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ifrah Fatima, M.B.B.S[2]


The need for cardiac transplantation may result from advanced, irreversible heart failure with a severely limited life expectancy. Common causes include- Systolic Heart Failure with a Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction less than 35%, Ischemic Coronary Artery Disease with Refractory Angina, Intractable life-threatening Arrhythmias, Cardiomyopathies, and congenital Heart Disease.


Life-threatening Causes

  • All the causes listed below are life-threatening as they lead to irreversible heart failure with very low ejection fraction and may cause sudden cardiac death if not optimized.

Common Causes

Common causes and indications that result in the need for cardiac transplantation may include:[1] [2] [3]

  • Systolic Heart Failure with a Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction less than 35%
  • Ischemic Coronary Artery Disease with Refractory Angina
  • Intractable life-threatening Arrhythmias
    • Ventricular arrhythmias which are not controlled by an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
  • Cardiomyopathies
    • Restrictive and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathies with NYHA Class IV heart failure symptoms
    • Non-dilated cardiomyopathies
  • Congenital Heart Disease
    • New York Heart Association functional class IV Heart Failure not amenable to surgery.


  1. Mehra MR, Canter CE, Hannan MM, Semigran MJ, Uber PA, Baran DA; et al. (2016). "The 2016 International Society for Heart Lung Transplantation listing criteria for heart transplantation: A 10-year update". J Heart Lung Transplant. 35 (1): 1–23. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2015.10.023. PMID 26776864.
  2. Alraies MC, Eckman P (2014). "Adult heart transplant: indications and outcomes". J Thorac Dis. 6 (8): 1120–8. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2014.06.44. PMC 4133547. PMID 25132979.
  3. Lund LH, Khush KK, Cherikh WS, Goldfarb S, Kucheryavaya AY, Levvey BJ; et al. (2017). "The Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: Thirty-fourth Adult Heart Transplantation Report-2017; Focus Theme: Allograft ischemic time". J Heart Lung Transplant. 36 (10): 1037–1046. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2017.07.019. PMID 28779893.

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