Gynecomastia Diagnostic Study of Choice

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Diagnostic study of choice

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Husnain Shaukat, M.D [2]


There is no established criteria for the diagnosis of gynecomastia. It is diagnosed clinically after a thorough history and physical examination. A diagnostic mammogram has a 90 percent sensitivity and specificity.

Diagnostic Criteria


  1. Braunstein GD (2007). "Clinical practice. Gynecomastia". N Engl J Med. 357 (12): 1229–37. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp070677. PMID 17881754.
  2. Giordano SH, Buzdar AU, Hortobagyi GN (2002). "Breast cancer in men". Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (8): 678–87. PMID 12379069.
  3. Evans GF, Anthony T, Turnage RH, Schumpert TD, Levy KR, Amirkhan RH, Campbell TJ, Lopez J, Appelbaum AH (2001). "The diagnostic accuracy of mammography in the evaluation of male breast disease". Am. J. Surg. 181 (2): 96–100. PMID 11425067.
  4. Muñoz Carrasco R, Alvarez Benito M, Muñoz Gomariz E, Raya Povedano JL, Martínez Paredes M (2010). "Mammography and ultrasound in the evaluation of male breast disease". Eur Radiol. 20 (12): 2797–805. doi:10.1007/s00330-010-1867-7. PMID 20571799.
  5. Shetty MK, Shah YP, Sharman RS (2003). "Prospective evaluation of the value of combined mammographic and sonographic assessment in patients with palpable abnormalities of the breast". J Ultrasound Med. 22 (3): 263–8, quiz 269–70. PMID 12636326.
  6. Carlson HE (2011). "Approach to the patient with gynecomastia". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96 (1): 15–21. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-1720. PMID 21209041.
  7. Robbins J, Jeffries D, Roubidoux M, Helvie M (2011). "Accuracy of diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasound during pregnancy and lactation". AJR Am J Roentgenol. 196 (3): 716–22. doi:10.2214/AJR.09.3662. PMID 21343518.

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