Gynecomastia other diagnostic studies

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Husnain Shaukat, M.D [2]


Gynecomastia is diagnosed clinically after a thorough history and physical examination.If a malignant cause is suspicious during gynecomastia work up, a biopsy from the breast tissue may be helpful to confirm or rule out breast cancer diagnosis.

Other Diagnostic Studies


Fine-needle aspiration biopsy findings associated with gynecomastia include:[1]

Long standing gynecomastia may show hyalinization of the stroma and fibrosis along with an increase in the number of ducts.[1][1]

In gynecomastia, a biopsy should be done to confirm breast cancer, if there are suspicious findings on imaging or clinical examination.[2][3][4]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Cuhaci N, Polat SB, Evranos B, Ersoy R, Cakir B (2014). "Gynecomastia: Clinical evaluation and management". Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 18 (2): 150–8. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.129104. PMC 3987263. PMID 24741509.
  2. Koshy JC, Goldberg JS, Wolfswinkel EM, Ge Y, Heller L (2011). "Breast cancer incidence in adolescent males undergoing subcutaneous mastectomy for gynecomastia: is pathologic examination justified? A retrospective and literature review". Plast Reconstr Surg. 127 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181f9581c. PMID 20871489.
  3. Westenend PJ, Sever AR, Beekman-De Volder HJ, Liem SJ (2001). "A comparison of aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy in the evaluation of breast lesions". Cancer. 93 (2): 146–50. PMID 11309781.
  4. Rotten D, Levaillant JM, Leridon H, Letessier A, Sandres M (1993). "Ultrasonographically guided fine needle aspiration cytology and core-needle biopsy in the diagnosis of breast tumors". Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 49 (3): 175–86. PMID 8405632.

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