Familial mediterranean fever pathophysiology
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The exact pathogenesis of familial mediterranean fever is not fully understood. However, nearly all the cases are due to a mutation in the MEFV gene, which codes for a protein called pyrin. Normally, pyrin regulates the production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), an important pro-inflammatory cytokine. When mutation occurs, mutated protein is unable to suppress expression of IL-1β, therefore an inflammatory response would develop results in clinical manifestation of FMF. The disease inherits in an autosomal recessive mode. However, there is an increasing number of data reporting the autosomal dominant inheritance.
- Approximately, all cases are due to a mutation in the MEFV gene, which codes for a protein called pyrin or marenostrin (from the original name of the Mediterranean sea, Marenostrum).
- Normally, pyrin regulates the production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), an important pro-inflammatory cytokine.
- IL-1β has a pivotal role in inflammatory processes such as fever, and septic shock.
- The maturation of IL-1β depends on an enzyme called caspase-1 which is activated within inflammosomes, a cytoplasmic multiprotein platforms.
- Inflammosomes will be activated upon cellular infection or stress.
- Although, it is still not clear, it has been assumed that mutant form of pyrin is unable to suppress, therefore an inflammatory response would develop results in clinical manifestation of FMF.
- The MEFV gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 16 (16p13) which consists of 10 exons.
- The majority of mutations occur in exon 10.
- To date, approximately 300 mutations have been reported in this gene.
- Not all the reported mutations would result in the presention of the disease.
- The E148Q, M680I, M694V, M694I, and V726A mutations have been observed to be responsible for more than 80% of FMF cases in the Middle Eastern region.
- The most common disease associated gene variants are:
- The disease inherits in an autosomal recessive mode. However, there is an increasing number of data reporting the autosomal dominant inheritance.
- The incidence of mutations may differ according to the ethnicity. For example M694V is the most frequently seen mutation in turkish population.
- Certain type of vasculitis such as:
- Hereditary angioedema
- FMF has been associated with some neurological disorders such as:
- Whether these disorders are a manifestation of FMF or not still need to be cleared.
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