Endocarditis risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Maliha Shakil, M.D. [2]


Common risk factors for endocarditis include prosthetic heart valves, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, intravenous drug use, age-related degenerative valvular lesions, immunosuppression, and colon cancer.

Risk Factors

Common risk factors in the development of infective endocarditis are:

Common risk factors in the development of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis include:

Epidemiological Clues in Etiological Diagnosis of Culture-Negative Endocarditis[16]

Epidemiological features Common Microorganism(s)
Injection drug use
Indwelling cardiovascular medical devices
Genitourinary disorders
Genitourinary infection
Genitourinary manipulation
Chronic skin disorders
Poor dental health, dental procedures
  • Viridans group streptococci
  • “Nutritionally variant streptococci”
  • Abiotrophia defectiva
  • Granulicatella sp
  • Gemella sp
  • HACEK organisms
Alcoholism, cirrhosis
Burn patients
  • S. aureus
  • Aerobic Gram-negative bacilli, including
Diabetes mellitus
Early ( < 1 y) prosthetic valve placement
Late ( > 1 y) prosthetic valve placement
Dog–cat exposure
Contact with contaminated milk
Contact with infected farm animals
Homeless, body lice
Pneumonia, meningitis
Solid organ transplant
Gastrointestinal lesions


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  9. Lin CJ, Chua S, Chung SY, Hang CL, Tsai TH (June 2019). "Diabetes Mellitus: An Independent Risk Factor of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Infective Endocarditis in a New Era of Clinical Practice". Int J Environ Res Public Health. 16 (12). doi:10.3390/ijerph16122248. PMC 6617149 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 31242695.
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  12. "THE SIGNIFICANCE OF NONBACTERIAL THROMBOTIC ENDOCARDITIS: AN AUTOPSY AND CLINICAL STUDY OF 78 CASES". Annals of Internal Medicine. 46 (2): 255. 1957. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-46-2-255. ISSN 0003-4819.
  13. Horwitz, Charles A.; Ward, Patrick C.J. (1971). "Disseminated intravascular coagulation, nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis and adult pulmonary hyaline membranes-an interrelated triad?". The American Journal of Medicine. 51 (2): 272–280. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(71)90245-2. ISSN 0002-9343.
  14. Min, Kyung-Whan; Gyorkey, Ferene; Sato, Clifford (1980). "Mucin-producing adenocarcinomas and nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Pathogenetic role of tumor mucin". Cancer. 45 (9): 2374–2382. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19800501)45:9<2374::AID-CNCR2820450923>3.0.CO;2-J. ISSN 0008-543X.
  15. Moyssakis, Ioannis; Tektonidou, Maria G.; Vasilliou, Vassilios A.; Samarkos, Michael; Votteas, Vassilios; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M. (2007). "Libman-Sacks Endocarditis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Prevalence, Associations, and Evolution". The American Journal of Medicine. 120 (7): 636–642. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2007.01.024. ISSN 0002-9343.
  16. Baddour, LM.; Wilson, WR.; Bayer, AS.; Fowler, VG.; Bolger, AF.; Levison, ME.; Ferrieri, P.; Gerber, MA.; Tani, LY. (2005). "Infective endocarditis: diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and management of complications: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, American Heart Association: endorsed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Circulation. 111 (23): e394–434. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.165564. PMID 15956145. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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