Endocarditis history and symptoms

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Maliha Shakil, M.D. [2] Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [3]


Common symptoms of endocarditis include fever, chills, anorexia, malaise, weight loss, and back pain.

History and Symptoms


Patients with endocarditis may have a positive history of:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Common Symptoms

Subacute bacterial endocarditis has an insidious onset while acute bacterial endocarditis is abrupt in onset.

Bacterial Endocarditis

Common symptoms of endocarditis include:[8][9][10][11]

Endocarditis Associated with Parenteral Drug Use

Common symptoms of endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers are:

Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis


  1. Arvay A, Lengyel M (1988). "Incidence and risk factors of prosthetic valve endocarditis". Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2 (5): 340–6. PMID 3272238.
  2. Mylonakis E, Calderwood SB (2001). "Infective endocarditis in adults". N Engl J Med. 345 (18): 1318–30. doi:10.1056/NEJMra010082. PMID 11794152.
  3. Corrigall, Denton; Bolen, James; Hancock, E.William; Popp, Richard L. (1977). "Mitral valve prolapse and infective endocarditis". The American Journal of Medicine. 63 (2): 215–222. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(77)90235-2. ISSN 0002-9343.
  4. Sousa, C.; Botelho, C.; Rodrigues, D.; Azeredo, J.; Oliveira, R. (2012). "Infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers: an update". European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 31 (11): 2905–2910. doi:10.1007/s10096-012-1675-x. ISSN 0934-9723.
  5. Sohail, Muhammad R.; Uslan, Daniel Z.; Khan, Akbar H.; Friedman, Paul A.; Hayes, David L.; Wilson, Walter R.; Steckelberg, James M.; Jenkins, Sarah M.; Baddour, Larry M. (2008). "Infective Endocarditis Complicating Permanent Pacemaker and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Infection". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 83 (1): 46–53. doi:10.4065/83.1.46. ISSN 0025-6196.
  6. Moyssakis, Ioannis; Tektonidou, Maria G.; Vasilliou, Vassilios A.; Samarkos, Michael; Votteas, Vassilios; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M. (2007). "Libman-Sacks Endocarditis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Prevalence, Associations, and Evolution". The American Journal of Medicine. 120 (7): 636–642. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2007.01.024. ISSN 0002-9343.
  7. Min, Kyung-Whan; Gyorkey, Ferene; Sato, Clifford (1980). "Mucin-producing adenocarcinomas and nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Pathogenetic role of tumor mucin". Cancer. 45 (9): 2374–2382. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19800501)45:9<2374::AID-CNCR2820450923>3.0.CO;2-J. ISSN 0008-543X.
  8. Dhawan VK (2002). "Infective endocarditis in elderly patients". Clin Infect Dis. 34 (6): 806–12. doi:10.1086/339045. PMID 11830803.
  9. Moss R, Munt B (2003). "Injection drug use and right sided endocarditis". Heart. 89 (5): 577–81. PMC 1767660. PMID 12695478.
  10. Silverman ME, Upshaw CB (December 2007). "Extracardiac manifestations of infective endocarditis and their historical descriptions". Am. J. Cardiol. 100 (12): 1802–7. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2007.07.034. PMID 18082531.
  11. Servy A, Valeyrie-Allanore L, Alla F, Lechiche C, Nazeyrollas P, Chidiac C, Hoen B, Chosidow O, Duval X (May 2014). "Prognostic value of skin manifestations of infective endocarditis". JAMA Dermatol. 150 (5): 494–500. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2013.8727. PMID 24500311.

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