Endocarditis historical background
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2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease
Endocarditis historical background On the Web
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D.  Maliha Shakil, M.D. 
Endocarditis was first described in 1554. The inflammatory process associated with endocarditis was discovered in 1799. Vegetations were first discovered to be associated with endocarditis in 1806.
Important landmarks in the history of endocarditis include the following:
- In 1554: Earliest report of endocarditis in medical books.
- In 1669: Accurately description of tricuspid valve endocarditis.
- In 1646: Description of unusual "outgrowths" from autopsy of a patient with endocarditis; detected murmurs by placing a hand on patient's chest.
- In 1708: Description of unusual structures in entrance of aorta.
- In 1715: Description of abnormality in aortic valve and mitral valve.
- In 1749: Description of valvular lesions.
- In 1769: Link between infectious disease and endocarditis established; association with spleen observed.
- In 1784: Intracardiac abnormalities accurately drawn.
- In 1797: Relationship between rheumatism and heart disease established.
- In 1799: Inflammatory process associated with endocarditis described.
- In 1806: Described unusual structures in the heart as "vegetations," syphilitic virus as a causative agent of endocarditis, and theory of antiviral treatment of endocarditis.
- In 1809: Vegetations were described as not "outgrowths" or "buds" but particles adhering to the heart wall.
- In 1816: Invention of cylindrical stethoscope used to listen to heart murmurs; the link between venereal disease and endocarditis dismissed.
- In 1832: Laennec's observations observed.
- In 1835-40: Named endocardium and endocarditis; described symptoms; herbal tea and bloodletting described as treatment regimen; the link between acute rheumatoid arthritis and endocarditis established.
- In 1852: Consequences of embolization of vegetations throughout body described. Described cutaneous nodules (named "Osler's nodes" by Libman).
- In 1858-71: Examined fibrin vegetation associated with endocarditis by microscope; coined term "embolism;" discussed role of bacteria, vibrios, and micrococci in endocarditis.
- In 1861: Virchow's theory on emboli described.
- In 1862: Granulations or foreign elements in blood and valves described.
- In 1868-70: Described infected arterial blood as originating from the heart; proposed scarlet fever as a cause of endocarditis.
- In 1869: Established "parasites" on skin transported to the heart and attached to endocardium; named Mycosis endocarditis.
- In 1872: Microorganisms in vegetations of endocarditis are described.
- In 1878: All cases of endocarditis were infectious in origin.
- In 1878: Combined experimental physiology and infection to produce an animal model of endocarditis in rabbit; noted valve had to be damaged before bacteria grafted onto the valve.
- In 1878: Micrococci enter vessels that valves were fitted into; valves exposed to abnormal mechanical attacks over long period created favorable niche for bacterial colonization.
- In 1879: Virchow's student; employed early animal model of endocarditis.
- In 1879: Proposed etiology of endocarditis was based on infectious model and treatment should focus on eliminating "parasitic infection"
- In 1880: Working with Pasteur, proposed use of routine blood cultures.
- In 1881-86: Believed endocarditis could appear during various infections; noted translocation of respiratory pathogen from pulmonary lesion to valve through blood.
- In 1883: Believed microorganisms were result, not cause, of endocarditis.
- In 1884: Named disease "infective endocarditis".
- In 1886: Demonstrated various bacteria introduced to bloodstream could cause endocarditis on valve that had previous lesion.
- In 1885: Synthesized work of others relating to endocarditis.
- In 1899: Described streptococcal, staphylococcal, pneumococcal, and gonococcal endocarditis.
- In 1903: First described "endocarditis lenta".
- In 1909: Credited by Osler as first to observe cutaneous nodes (named "Osler's nodes" by Libman) in patients with endocarditis.
- In 1909: Analyzed 150 cases of endocarditis and published diagnostic criteria relating to signs and symptoms.
- In 1910: Described initial classification scheme to include "subacute endocarditis," with clinical signs/symptoms; absolute diagnosis required blood cultures.
- In 1981: Beth Israel criteria based on strict case definitions described.
- In 1994: New criteria utilizing specific echocardiographic findings.
- In 1995: Antibiotic treatment of adults with infective endocarditis caused by streptococci, enterococci, staphylococci, and HACEK microorganisms described.
- In 1996: Modified Duke Criteria to allow serologic diagnosis of Coxiella burnetii.
- In 1997: Guidelines for preventing bacterial endocarditis established.
- In 1997: Modifications to Duke criteria for clinical diagnosis of native valve and prosthetic valve endocarditis suggested: Analysis of 118 pathologically proven cases.
- In 1998: Guidelines for antibiotic treatment of streptococcal, enterococcal, and staphylococcal endocarditis established.
- In 1998: Antibiotic treatment of infective endocarditis due to viridans streptococci, enterococci, and other streptococci established; recommendations for surgical treatment of endocarditis.
- In 2000: Updated and modified Duke Criteria.
- In 2002: Duke Criteria to include a molecular diagnosis of causal agents.
- In 2001-3: Etiology of Bartonella spp., Tropheryma whipplei, and Coxiella burnetii in endocarditis described.
- ↑ Millar BC, Moore JE (2004). "Emerging issues in infective endocarditis". Emerg Infect Dis. 10 (6): 1110–6. doi:10.3201/eid1006.030848. PMC 3323180. PMID 15207065.
- ↑ Grinberg M, Solimene MC (2011). "Historical aspects of infective endocarditis". Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 57 (2): 228–33. doi:10.1590/s0104-42302011000200023. PMID 21537712.
- ↑ Contrepois, Alain (2012). "Towards a history of infective endocarditis". Medical History. 40 (1): 25–54. doi:10.1017/S0025727300060658. ISSN 0025-7273.
- ↑ Sordelli C, Fele N, Mocerino R, Weisz SH, Ascione L, Caso P; et al. (2019). "Infective Endocarditis: Echocardiographic Imaging and New Imaging Modalities". J Cardiovasc Echogr. 29 (4): 149–155. doi:10.4103/jcecho.jcecho_53_19. PMC 7011492 Check
|pmc=value (help). PMID 32089994 Check