Childhood obesity

Jump to navigation Jump to search


Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Iman Djarraya, BMedSci, MBChB, MPH[2]

Synonyms and Keywords: obesity in kids, obesity in children, pediatric obesity


Overview

Childhood obesity is a Body Mass Index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile for children of the same gender and age. It is a serious health problem that can result in health complications. Childhood obesity can be caused by dietary factors, lifestyle factors, underlying medical conditions, genetic causes or certain medications. Obesity may present with high blood pressure, shortness of breath, sleep apnea, gastroesophageal reflux, constipation, insulin resistance, constipation, or irregular menstruation. The presence of polyuria and polydipsia suggests possible diabetes, excess facial hair, insulin resistance and irregular menstruation in adolescent girls may be due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and dry skin, constipation and intolerance to cold suggest hypothyroidism. laboratory tests indicated depend on the clinical presentation. Management of obesity includes the treatment of any underlying medical conditions and lifestyle modification.

Historical Perspective

Classification

  • Obesity: BMI is ≥95th percentile
  • Severe obesity: BMI ≥120% of the 95th percentile or BMI ≥35 kg/m2.

Pathophysiology

Causes

Childhood obesity may be caused by unhealthy dietary intake[7], unhealthy lifestyle [8], environmental factors[9], psychological stress [10], genetic causes [11], medication-induced [11] or cerebral injury.[11]

Dietary factors

Children and adolescents are consuming low nutrient high-calorie foods and beverages at home, school and other places. They are consuming more fast food which is low in nutrients and high in calories, fat and sodium. CDC reports that children and adolescents in the U.S. consumed an average of 13.8% of their daily calories from fast food during 2015-2018.[12] In addition, they are consuming large amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages which has been directly associated with obesity in multiple reviews.[13] [14]

Lifestyle factors

Physical inactivity, excess use of screen time and inadequate sleep also contribute to the obesity epidemic.[8] [15]

Environmental factors

Eating habits of the child are affected by demographics, lunch policies at schools and work demands on parents.[16]

Psychological stress

Chronic stress increases the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome and mental health problems.[10]

Endocrine causes

There are hormonal disorders that may be associated with weight gain and obesity in children including: hypothyroidism[17], cushing's syndrome[18], polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)[19], precocious puberty[20], and pseudohypoparthyroidism.[21]

Genetic causes

Often, a child whose parents are overweight or obese will also be overweight or obese. Although this is often caused by shared unhealthy eating habits in the household, several genetic causes have been identified as a cause of obesity.[6] These can be divides into monogenic causes, syndromic obesity and polygenic obesity.[6] Monogenic obesity is caused of a mutation to a single gene including Leptin (LEP) mutations, Leptin Receptor (LEPR) mutations, Pro-opio melanocortin (POMC) mutations, MC4R deficiency, Proconvertase (PC1/2) deficiency, SIM1 deficiency, NTRK2/BDNF mutations and SH2B1 mutations.[6] Syndromic obesity include Prader Willi Syndrome (PWS), Cohen syndrome[6], Turner syndrome[22], down syndrome, and Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome.[23]

Medication-induced

Medications that may cause weight gain in children include second-generation antipsychotics[24], glucocorticoids[25], risperidone[26], clozapine[27], and tricyclic antidepressants[28].

Cerebral injury

Obesity can occur after acquired hypothalamic lesions following surgery, meningitis or ischemic injury.[11]

Differentiating childhood obesity due to lifestyle factors from other Diseases

Epidemiology and demographics

  • The prevalence of children who are overweight or obese worldwide is approximately 38 million in children under the age of 5 in 2019 and more than 340 million between 5 and 19 years old in 2016.[29]
  • In 2015-2016, the prevalence of Childhood Obesity in USA was estimated to be 13.9% among children aged 2 to 5 years, 18.4% among children aged 6 to 11 and 20.6% among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years.[30]

Age

  • Children of all age groups may develop Childhood Obesity.
  • Childhood Obesity is more commonly observed among children aged 12 to 19 years old in the USA. This is followed by children aged 6 to 11 years old and then children aged 2 to 5 years of age.

Gender

  • Childhood Obesity prevalence by gender is different depending on the region.
  • Males are more commonly affected than females 5 to 19 years of age in most high and upper middle-income countries.[31]

Race

  • Obesity prevalence was higher among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks than non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic Asians.[32]

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

  • The diagnosis of childhood obesity for children age 2 and older is made when the Body Mass Index (BMI) is at or above the 95th percentile on the BMI-for-age growth chart.[36]

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

  • Physical examination may be remarkable for:

Laboratory Findins

Treatment

Medical therapy

Surgery

  • Bariatric surgery are performed in some adolescents with severe obesity.[45]

Prevention

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Carmichael, A R (1999). "Current concepts: Treatment for morbid obesity". Postgraduate Medical Journal. 75 (879): 7–12. doi:10.1136/pgmj.75.879.7. ISSN 0032-5473.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Styne DM, Arslanian SA, Connor EL, Farooqi IS, Murad MH, Silverstein JH; et al. (2017). "Pediatric Obesity-Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 102 (3): 709–757. doi:10.1210/jc.2016-2573. PMC 6283429. PMID 28359099.
  3. https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood_why/en/
  4. https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood_why/en/
  5. Klok MD, Jakobsdottir S, Drent ML (2007). "The role of leptin and ghrelin in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans: a review". Obes Rev. 8 (1): 21–34. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00270.x. PMID 17212793.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Thaker VV (2017). "GENETIC AND EPIGENETIC CAUSES OF OBESITY". Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 28 (2): 379–405. PMC 6226269. PMID 30416642.
  7. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/obesity/causes/
  8. 8.0 8.1 {{cite journal| author=Ren H, Zhou Z, Liu WK, Wang X, Yin Z| title=Excessive homework, inadequate sleep, physical inactivity and screen viewing time are major contributors to high paediatric obesity.<ref name="pmid27759894">Ren H, Zhou Z, Liu WK, Wang X, Yin Z (January 2017). "Excessive homework, inadequate sleep, physical inactivity and screen viewing time are major contributors to high paediatric obesity". Acta Paediatr. 106 (1): 120–127. doi:10.1111/apa.13640. PMC 6680318 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 27759894.
  9. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/causes.html#:~:text=Childhood%20Obesity%20Causes%20&%20Consequences%201%20Behavior.%20Behaviors,Community%20Environment.%20...%203%20Consequences%20of%20Obesity.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Ruiz LD, Zuelch ML, Dimitratos SM, Scherr RE (2019). "Adolescent Obesity: Diet Quality, Psychosocial Health, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors". Nutrients. 12 (1). doi:10.3390/nu12010043. PMC 7020092 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 31877943.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Kleinendorst L, Abawi O, van der Voorn B, Jongejan MHTM, Brandsma AE, Visser JA; et al. (2020). "Identifying underlying medical causes of pediatric obesity: Results of a systematic diagnostic approach in a pediatric obesity center". PLoS One. 15 (5): e0232990. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0232990. PMC 7209105 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 32384097 Check |pmid= value (help).
  12. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db375.htm
  13. Keller A, Bucher Della Torre S (2015). "Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Obesity among Children and Adolescents: A Review of Systematic Literature Reviews". Child Obes. 11 (4): 338–46. doi:10.1089/chi.2014.0117. PMC 4529053. PMID 26258560.
  14. Hu FB, Malik VS (2010). "Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic evidence". Physiol Behav. 100 (1): 47–54. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.01.036. PMC 2862460. PMID 20138901.
  15. Morrissey B, Allender S, Strugnell C (2019). "Dietary and Activity Factors Influence Poor Sleep and the Sleep-Obesity Nexus among Children". Int J Environ Res Public Health. 16 (10). doi:10.3390/ijerph16101778. PMID 31137502.
  16. Sahoo K, Sahoo B, Choudhury AK, Sofi NY, Kumar R, Bhadoria AS (2015). "Childhood obesity: causes and consequences". J Family Med Prim Care. 4 (2): 187–92. doi:10.4103/2249-4863.154628. PMC 4408699. PMID 25949965.
  17. Verma A, Jayaraman M, Kumar HK, Modi KD (2008). "Hypothyroidism and obesity. Cause or effect?". Saudi Med J. 29 (8): 1135–8. PMID 18690306.
  18. Stratakis CA (2016). "Diagnosis and Clinical Genetics of Cushing Syndrome in Pediatrics". Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 45 (2): 311–28. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2016.01.006. PMC 4889872. PMID 27241967.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Kamboj MK, Bonny AE (2017). "Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies". Transl Pediatr. 6 (4): 248–255. doi:10.21037/tp.2017.09.11. PMC 5682369. PMID 29184806.
  20. Chen C, Zhang Y, Sun W, Chen Y, Jiang Y, Song Y; et al. (2017). "Investigating the relationship between precocious puberty and obesity: a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China". BMJ Open. 7 (4): e014004. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014004. PMC 5566589. PMID 28400459.
  21. Shoemaker AH, Jüppner H (2017). "Nonclassic features of pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A". Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 24 (1): 33–38. doi:10.1097/MED.0000000000000306. PMC 5484400. PMID 27875418.
  22. Lebenthal Y, Levy S, Sofrin-Drucker E, Nagelberg N, Weintrob N, Shalitin S; et al. (2018). "The Natural History of Metabolic Comorbidities in Turner Syndrome from Childhood to Early Adulthood: Comparison between 45,X Monosomy and Other Karyotypes". Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 9: 27. doi:10.3389/fendo.2018.00027. PMC 5811462. PMID 29479339.
  23. Kumar A, Husain A, Saleem A, Khawaja UA, Virani S (2020). "Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: A Rare Case With a Literature Review". Cureus. 12 (11): e11355. doi:10.7759/cureus.11355. PMC 7720918 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 33304690 Check |pmid= value (help).
  24. Bretler T, Weisberg H, Koren O, Neuman H (2019). "The effects of antipsychotic medications on microbiome and weight gain in children and adolescents". BMC Med. 17 (1): 112. doi:10.1186/s12916-019-1346-1. PMC 6582584 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 31215494.
  25. Tosur M, Viau-Colindres J, Astudillo M, Redondo MJ, Lyons SK (2020). "Medication-induced hyperglycemia: pediatric perspective". BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 8 (1). doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000801. PMC 6954773 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 31958298.
  26. Vanwong N, Ngamsamut N, Nuntamool N, Hongkaew Y, Sukprasong R, Puangpetch A; et al. (2020). "Risperidone-Induced Obesity in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Genetic and Clinical Risk Factors". Front Pharmacol. 11: 565074. doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.565074. PMC 7677569 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 33240086 Check |pmid= value (help).
  27. Vasudev K, Choi YH, Norman R, Kim RB, Schwarz UI (2017). "Genetic Determinants of Clozapine-Induced Metabolic Side Effects". Can J Psychiatry. 62 (2): 138–149. doi:10.1177/0706743716670128. PMC 5298525. PMID 27681143.
  28. van Reedt Dortland AK, Giltay EJ, van Veen T, Zitman FG, Penninx BW (2010). "Metabolic syndrome abnormalities are associated with severity of anxiety and depression and with tricyclic antidepressant use". Acta Psychiatr Scand. 122 (1): 30–9. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2010.01565.x. PMID 20456284.
  29. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight
  30. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db288.htm#:~:text=The%20prevalence%20of%20obesity%20was%2039.8%%20among%20adults,20%E2%80%9339%20overall%20and%20in%20both%20men%20and%20women.
  31. https://nutrition.bmj.com/content/bmjnph/early/2020/09/07/bmjnph-2020-000074.full.pdf
  32. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db288.pdf
  33. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/causes.html
  34. Kang NR, Kwack YS (2020). "An Update on Mental Health Problems and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Pediatric Obesity". Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr. 23 (1): 15–25. doi:10.5223/pghn.2020.23.1.15. PMID 31988872.
  35. Di Cesare M, Sorić M, Bovet P, Miranda JJ, Bhutta Z, Stevens GA; et al. (2019). "The epidemiological burden of obesity in childhood: a worldwide epidemic requiring urgent action". BMC Med. 17 (1): 212. doi:10.1186/s12916-019-1449-8. PMID 31760948.
  36. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/obesity/conditioninfo/diagnosed
  37. Chaker L, Bianco AC, Jonklaas J, Peeters RP (2017). "Hypothyroidism". Lancet. 390 (10101): 1550–1562. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30703-1. PMC 6619426 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 28336049.
  38. Lodish MB, Keil MF, Stratakis CA (2018). "Cushing's Syndrome in Pediatrics: An Update". Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 47 (2): 451–462. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2018.02.008. PMC 5962291. PMID 29754644.
  39. Klein DA, Emerick JE, Sylvester JE, Vogt KS (2017). "Disorders of Puberty: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management". Am Fam Physician. 96 (9): 590–599. PMID 29094880.
  40. Styne, Dennis M.; Arslanian, Silva A.; Connor, Ellen L.; Farooqi, Ismaa Sadaf; Murad, M. Hassan; Silverstein, Janet H.; Yanovski, Jack A. (2017). "Pediatric Obesity—Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 102 (3): 709–757. doi:10.1210/jc.2016-2573. ISSN 0021-972X.
  41. https://www.thyroid.org/pediatric-thyroid-function/
  42. Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G (1975). "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes". Biochem Pharmacol. 24 (17): 1639–41. PMID https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2006-2402 Check |pmid= value (help).
  43. Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G (1975). "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes". Biochem Pharmacol. 24 (17): 1639–41. PMID https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-2056J Check |pmid= value (help).
  44. https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-approves-first-treatment-weight-management-people-certain-rare-genetic-conditions
  45. Beamish AJ, Reinehr T (2017). "Should bariatric surgery be performed in adolescents?". Eur J Endocrinol. 176 (4): D1–D15. doi:10.1530/EJE-16-0906. PMID 28174231.
  46. Rito AI, Buoncristiano M, Spinelli A, Salanave B, Kunešová M, Hejgaard T; et al. (2019). "Association between Characteristics at Birth, Breastfeeding and Obesity in 22 Countries: The WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative - COSI 2015/2017". Obes Facts. 12 (2): 226–243. doi:10.1159/000500425. PMC 6547266 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 31030194.

External links