Cardiac amyloidosis medical therapy

Jump to: navigation, search

Cardiac amyloidosis Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Cardiac Amyloidosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

X-ray

Echocardiography and Ultrasound

CT scan

MRI

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Cardiac amyloidosis medical therapy On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Cardiac amyloidosis medical therapy

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Cardiac amyloidosis medical therapy

CDC onCardiac amyloidosis medical therapy

Cardiac amyloidosis medical therapy in the news

Blogs on Cardiac amyloidosis medical therapy

Directions to Hospitals Treating Cardiac amyloidosis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Cardiac amyloidosis medical therapy

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Raviteja Guddeti, M.B.B.S. [2]; Aarti Narayan, M.B.B.S [3]; Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [4]; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S. [5]

Overview

Major cardiac manifestations of systemic amyloidosis include heart failure and fatal arrhythmias. Therefore, in addition to treating the underlying disease, the treatment of cardiac amyloidosis includes the treatment of heart failure and arrhythmias. Treatment of heart failure associated with cardiac amyloidosis differs from therapy usually administered in patients with systolic or diastolic dysfunction. Loop diuretics are the drugs of choice in the treatment of heart failure in cardiac amyloidosis.

Medical Therapy

Treatment of Underlying Disease

ATTR Amyloidosis

Tafamidis (ATTR stabilization molecule) has been approved by regulatory agencies for treatment of patients with ATTR cardiomyopathy and NYHA functional class I-III symptoms. The ATTR-ACT study randomized 441 patients with ATTR amyloid cardiomyopathy (mutant or while type) to tafamidis 80 mg, 20 mg, or placebo, and followed the patients for 30 months.[1] Compared with placebo, tafamidis reduced mortality (29.5 vs 42.8% HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.86) and cardiovascular hospitalizations (0.48 vs 0.70 per year; RR 0.68; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.81).

AL Amyloidosis

The definitive treatment of AL amyloidosis includes antiplasma cell therapy aimed at halting the process of paraprotein production responsible for the formation of amyloid. Major treatment strategies include:[2][3]

Chemotherapy

Most common chemotherapy regimens used in the treatment of AL amyloidosis are:

Of all the chemotherapy regimens, treatment with IV melphalan has shown the highest success rate, with a complete hematologic response in ≈40% of patients. However patients with advanced heart failure, pleural effusion, markedly thickened ventricular wall and elevated troponin levels are associated with poor prognosis in patients treated with chemotherapy. In patients with cardiac amyloid, an ejection fraction of <40% is considered an absolute contraindication for high dose chemotherapy. A standard regimen of melphalan includes pulsed dose administration of melphalan and prednisone for 3 to 5 days every 6 weeks. An alternative regimen is monthly injection of slow continuous low-dose melphalan. Bortezomib, a novel proteasome inhibitor, has been shown to be associated with higher response rates similar to that of HSCT.[12][13] Frequent assessment of plasma free light chains and cardiac biomarkers should be a part of the treatment strategy, to optimize risk/benefit ratio and to prevent chemotherapy related toxicity.[14]

Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT)

HSCT is one of the two widely used regimens in the treatment of AL amyloidosis, the other being a combination of melphalan and dexamethasone. This treatment strategy includes administration of high-dose IV melphalan followed by stem cell rescue.[15][16] In selected patients response rates can approach 60%.[17][18][19] Although HSCT has been shown to be associated with reduced mortality, selection of patients remains a critical step while employing this method in the treatment of AL amyloidosis. Reports indicate best results were obtained in patients with one or two organ involvement, no cardiac dysfunction and in those with nephrotic syndrome as the predominant manifestation of systemic amyloidosis. On the contrary, patients with multi-organ involvement, cardiac dysfunction and renal insufficiency are at high risk for morbidity and mortality when treated with HSCT. Poor prognostic predictors include:

Treatment related mortality limits the use of HSCT in every patient and thus warrants a need for the careful selection of patients.

In a randomized controlled trial conducted by the French Myeloma Collaborative Group comparing high dose melphalan followed by HSCT with melphalan and dexamethasone combination regimen, it was found that there exists no significant differences in the treatment outcomes between the two regimens.[24]

Investigational Agents

Several investigational products are currently being studied in clinical trials. These include small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules which reduce the production of the amyloid precursor misfolded protein and ATTR stabilization molecules.

Treatment of Heart Failure

Heart failure in cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is due to extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils which results in reduced myocardial compliance and myonecrosis. This extensive infltration of amyloid results in non-compliant, small ventricles leading to impaired filling. Infiltration of the atria further worsens the situation as it impairs atrial contraction.

Acute Pharmacotherapy

Pharmacotherapy in heart failure associated with amyloidosis is different from heart failure due to other causes in that loop diuretics are the main stay of treatment and beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors may be harmful. TTR CA responds better to pharmacotherapy than AL cardiac amyloidosis.

  • Loop diuretics are the drugs of choice in the treatment of heart failure in cardiac amyloidosis. Higher doses of diuretics are used if concomitant nephrotic syndrome is present.
  • Hospitalization and IV diuretics are recommended in the presence of severe symptoms. Careful monitoring of blood pressure and renal function is warranted as rigorous use of diuretics can progress to azotemia. Addition of an aldosterone antagonist such as spironolactone to loop diuretics is well tolerated. Patients with anasarca have reduced absorption rate for the drugs and hence are given intravenous medications.
  • Beta-blockers have been shown to have no proven benefit in the treatment of heart failure associated with amyloidosis. Moreover their use may worsen the condition in patients in whom cardiac output is dependent on heart rate due to presence of a low, fixed stroke volume.
  • Clinical experience with ACE inhibitors in this scenario has shown that these agents are often associated with profound hypotension in AL type CA. The reason for that is possibly by exposing a subclinical neuropathy.
  • Calcium channel blockers bind to the amyloid fibrils and thereby have been reported to increase the incidence of congestive heart failure and produce arrhythmias. Because of this abnormal binding to amyloid fibrils patients with cardiac amyloidosis may be exceptionally sensitive to the negative inotropic effects of these drugs and hence, these drugs are contraindicated in patients with both AL and TTR cardiac amyloidosis.[25][26][27][28][29]
  • Digoxin also binds to amyloid fibrils and is associated with increased risk of digitalis toxicity.

Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

Involvement of the atria in CA increases the risk for developing atrial fibrillation (AFib). Interstitial deposition of amyloid fibrils makes the atria less compliant and forms a substrate for the development of AFib. [32] AFib with rapid ventricular rate can be treated using the following drugs:

  • Low dose beta-blockers: Should be used with caution and with constant blood pressure monitoring
  • Digoxin: Digoxin should be used with caution in patients with CA as these patients are more prone for digitalis toxicity.
  • Amiodarone: Amiodarone is used for rhythm control and is proved to be well tolerated in these patients.

Anticoagulation

Occurrence of intracardiac thrombi is frequent in patients with cardiac amyloidosis especially in the AL type. Atrial fibrillation, poor left ventricular diastolic function and atrial mechanical dysfunction have been shown to be associated with increased risk for developing intracardiac thrombi. Thrombi can be present even when the patient is in sinus rhythm.[33][34] Indications for anticoagulation with warfarin include:

  • Presence of AFib
  • Diminutive transmitral A wave and depressed left atrial appendage velocity on echo signalling atrial failure, especially in AL type CA

Because of the increased risk for thromboembolism and subsequent stroke in patients with CA, anticoagulation is not withheld once indicated unless an absolute contraindication exists.

Supportive Measures

  • Physical activity may continue as long as the patient can tolerate it.
  • Diet restrictions vary with the extent of cardiomyopathy and heart failure. These may include salt and/or fluid restrictions.

References

  1. Maurer, Mathew S. (10/29/2019). "Tafamidis Treatment for Patients with Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy". Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. De Lorenzi E, Giorgetti S, Grossi S, Merlini G, Caccialanza G, Bellotti V (2004). "Pharmaceutical strategies against amyloidosis: old and new drugs in targeting a "protein misfolding disease"". Current Medicinal Chemistry. 11 (8): 1065–84. PMID 15078166. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. Gertz MA, Lacy MQ, Dispenzieri A (2004). "Therapy for immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis: the new and the old". Blood Reviews. 18 (1): 17–37. PMID 14684147. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. Sanchorawala V, Wright DG, Seldin DC; et al. (2002). "Low-dose continuous oral melphalan for the treatment of primary systemic (AL) amyloidosis". British Journal of Haematology. 117 (4): 886–9. PMID 12060126. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. Palladini G, Perfetti V, Obici L; et al. (2004). "Association of melphalan and high-dose dexamethasone is effective and well tolerated in patients with AL (primary) amyloidosis who are ineligible for stem cell transplantation". Blood. 103 (8): 2936–8. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-08-2788. PMID 15070667. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. Palladini G, Perfetti V, Perlini S; et al. (2005). "The combination of thalidomide and intermediate-dose dexamethasone is an effective but toxic treatment for patients with primary amyloidosis (AL)". Blood. 105 (7): 2949–51. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-08-3231. PMID 15572585. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. Kastritis E, Anagnostopoulos A, Roussou M; et al. (2007). "Treatment of light chain (AL) amyloidosis with the combination of bortezomib and dexamethasone". Haematologica. 92 (10): 1351–8. doi:10.3324/haematol.11325. PMID 18024372. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  8. Dispenzieri A, Buadi F, Laumann K; et al. (2012). "Activity of pomalidomide in patients with immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis". Blood. 119 (23): 5397–404. doi:10.1182/blood-2012-02-413161. PMID 22493299. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  9. Elkinson S, McCormack PL (2013). "Pomalidomide: first global approval". Drugs. 73 (6): 595–604. doi:10.1007/s40265-013-0047-x. PMID 23572409. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  10. Dispenzieri A, Lacy MQ, Zeldenrust SR; et al. (2007). "The activity of lenalidomide with or without dexamethasone in patients with primary systemic amyloidosis". Blood. 109 (2): 465–70. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-07-032987. PMID 17008538. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  11. Sanchorawala V, Wright DG, Rosenzweig M; et al. (2007). "Lenalidomide and dexamethasone in the treatment of AL amyloidosis: results of a phase 2 trial". Blood. 109 (2): 492–6. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-07-030544. PMID 16960148. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  12. Wechalekar AD, Lachmann HJ, Offer M, Hawkins PN, Gillmore JD (2008). "Efficacy of bortezomib in systemic AL amyloidosis with relapsed/refractory clonal disease". Haematologica. 93 (2): 295–8. doi:10.3324/haematol.11627. PMID 18245653. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  13. Reece DE, Sanchorawala V, Hegenbart U; et al. (2009). "Weekly and twice-weekly bortezomib in patients with systemic AL amyloidosis: results of a phase 1 dose-escalation study". Blood. 114 (8): 1489–97. doi:10.1182/blood-2009-02-203398. PMID 19498019. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  14. Palladini G, Lavatelli F, Russo P; et al. (2006). "Circulating amyloidogenic free light chains and serum N-terminal natriuretic peptide type B decrease simultaneously in association with improvement of survival in AL". Blood. 107 (10): 3854–8. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-11-4385. PMID 16434487. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  15. Sanchorawala V, Wright DG, Seldin DC; et al. (2004). "High-dose intravenous melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation as initial therapy or following two cycles of oral chemotherapy for the treatment of AL amyloidosis: results of a prospective randomized trial". Bone Marrow Transplantation. 33 (4): 381–8. doi:10.1038/sj.bmt.1704346. PMID 14676787. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  16. Vesole DH, Pérez WS, Akasheh M, Boudreau C, Reece DE, Bredeson CN (2006). "High-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with primary systemic amyloidosis: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Study". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Mayo Clinic. 81 (7): 880–8. doi:10.4065/81.7.880. PMID 16835967. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  17. Qiu ZX, Wang MJ, Wang LH; et al. (2012). "[Clinical investigation of primary amyloidosis with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation]". Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi = Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi (in Chinese). 33 (3): 187–90. PMID 22781604. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  18. Shimojima Y, Matsuda M, Ishii W; et al. (2005). "High-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell support in primary systemic AL amyloidosis with multiple organ involvement". Internal Medicine (Tokyo, Japan). 44 (5): 484–9. PMID 15942100. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  19. Sanchorawala V, Skinner M, Quillen K, Finn KT, Doros G, Seldin DC (2007). "Long-term outcome of patients with AL amyloidosis treated with high-dose melphalan and stem-cell transplantation". Blood. 110 (10): 3561–3. doi:10.1182/blood-2007-07-099481. PMC 2077307. PMID 17673601. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  20. Palladini G, Campana C, Klersy C; et al. (2003). "Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide is a sensitive marker of myocardial dysfunction in AL amyloidosis". Circulation. 107 (19): 2440–5. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000068314.02595.B2. PMID 12719281. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  21. Dispenzieri A, Gertz MA, Kyle RA; et al. (2004). "Prognostication of survival using cardiac troponins and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in patients with primary systemic amyloidosis undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation". Blood. 104 (6): 1881–7. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-01-0390. PMID 15044258. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  22. Kumar S, Dispenzieri A, Katzmann JA; et al. (2010). "Serum immunoglobulin free light-chain measurement in primary amyloidosis: prognostic value and correlations with clinical features". Blood. 116 (24): 5126–9. doi:10.1182/blood-2010-06-290668. PMC 3012533. PMID 20798235. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  23. Kumar S, Dispenzieri A, Lacy MQ; et al. (2008). "Serum uric acid: novel prognostic factor in primary systemic amyloidosis". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Mayo Clinic. 83 (3): 297–303. doi:10.4065/83.3.297. PMID 18315995. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  24. Jaccard A, Moreau P, Leblond V; et al. (2007). "High-dose melphalan versus melphalan plus dexamethasone for AL amyloidosis". The New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (11): 1083–93. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa070484. PMID 17855669. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  25. Gertz MA, Skinner M, Connors LH, Falk RH, Cohen AS, Kyle RA (1985). "Selective binding of nifedipine to amyloid fibrils". The American Journal of Cardiology. 55 (13 Pt 1): 1646. PMID 4003315. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  26. Gertz MA, Falk RH, Skinner M, Cohen AS, Kyle RA (1985). "Worsening of congestive heart failure in amyloid heart disease treated by calcium channel-blocking agents". The American Journal of Cardiology. 55 (13 Pt 1): 1645. PMID 4003314. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  27. Rubinow A, Skinner M, Cohen AS (1981). "Digoxin sensitivity in amyloid cardiomyopathy". Circulation. 63 (6): 1285–8. PMID 7014028. Retrieved 2012-02-13. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  28. Pollak A, Falk RH (1993). "Left ventricular systolic dysfunction precipitated by verapamil in cardiac amyloidosis". Chest. 104 (2): 618–20. PMID 8339658. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  29. Griffiths BE, Hughes P, Dowdle R, Stephens MR (1982). "Cardiac amyloidosis with asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and deterioration after nifedipine". Thorax. 37 (9): 711–2. PMC 459412. PMID 6891504. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  30. Mathew V, Olson LJ, Gertz MA, Hayes DL (1997). "Symptomatic conduction system disease in cardiac amyloidosis". The American Journal of Cardiology. 80 (11): 1491–2. PMID 9399732. Retrieved 2012-02-13. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  31. Mathew V, Chaliki H, Nishimura RA (1997). "Atrioventricular sequential pacing in cardiac amyloidosis: an acute Doppler echocardiographic and catheterization hemodynamic study". Clinical Cardiology. 20 (8): 723–5. PMID 9259166. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  32. Röcken C, Peters B, Juenemann G; et al. (2002). "Atrial amyloidosis: an arrhythmogenic substrate for persistent atrial fibrillation". Circulation. 106 (16): 2091–7. PMID 12379579. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  33. Feng D, Syed IS, Martinez M; et al. (2009). "Intracardiac thrombosis and anticoagulation therapy in cardiac amyloidosis". Circulation. 119 (18): 2490–7. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.785014. PMID 19414641. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  34. Feng D, Edwards WD, Oh JK; et al. (2007). "Intracardiac thrombosis and embolism in patients with cardiac amyloidosis". Circulation. 116 (21): 2420–6. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.697763. PMID 17984380. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)


Cardiology


Linked-in.jpg