Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Tayyaba Ali, M.D. 
Cancer screening guideline, Cancer screening in adults
Synonyms and Keywords:
Breast cancer screening starts at the age of 50 via a mammogram twice a year and discontinues at the age of 74. Cervical cancer screening starts at the age of 21 regardless of the onset of sexual activity via Papanicolaou test ( Cervical cytology). Colorectal cancer screening starts among asymptomatic adults at the age of 50 with no family history of adenoma or colorectal cancer (CRC). It is preferably done via colonoscopy. There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine screening for endometrial cancer. Screening of barrett's esophagus-associated adenocarcinoma by endoscopy is a worldwide clinical practice. Squamous dysplasia is the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. There are no studies suggesting the endoscopic screening for squamous esophageal carcinoma among the population of western countries. Lung cancer screening starts among asymptomatic adults aged 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack per year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit smoking within the past 15 years. There are no recommendations for screening ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women although better outcomes are associated with early diagnosis. Prostate cancer screening starts at the age of 55 via digital rectal exam and prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood test and discontinues at the age of 69. Screening for prostate cancer is controversial because it is not clear if the benefits of screening outweigh the risks of follow-up diagnostic tests and cancer treatments.
Breast cancer screening starts at the age of 50 via a mammogram twice a year and discontinues at the age of 74.  According to the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence, mortality, and prevalence, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths among females (11.6% of total cancer deaths). 
Recommendations for Breast cancer screening:
The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the benefits and harms of screening mammography in women 75 years and older.
To view the detailed information on
cervical cancer screening click here.
Colorectal cancer screening starts among asymptomatic adults at the age of 50 with no family history of adenoma or colorectal cancer (CRC). It is preferably done via colonoscopy.  According to the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence, mortality, and prevalence, Colon cancer is the fourth commonly occurring cancer (6.1% for incidence). It is the third cause of death in cancer patients (9.2% of total cancer deaths). 
Recommendations for Colorectal cancer screening:
Age 50 asymptomatic with no history of CRC or adenoma
Direct Visualization Tests
Guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) (every year)
Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) (every year)
Multitargeted stool DNA test (FIT-DNA) (every 1 year or 3 years)
Family history of CRC or adenomatous polyps
1 First-degree relative age <60
Multiple first-degree relatives at any age
Colonoscopy at age 40 or 10 years before the age of diagnosis in affected relative (every 5 years)
Inflammatory bowel disease
Crohn disease with colonic involvement
Colonoscopy 8-10 years after diagnosis (every 1-3 years)
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Recommendations for Esophageal adenocarcinoma screening:
Screening recommendations in Barrett's Esophagus
Suspected low-grade dysplasia
Endoscopy (every 6-12 months) or endoscopy eradication therapy
Suspected high-grade dysplasia
Endoscopic Eradication therapy
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma:
Recommendations for Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma screening:
Endoscopy once in a lifetime among high-risk for cancer such as:
Geography such as: Southeastern Africa, Asia, Iran, South America
Diet low in fruits and vegetables
Intermediate grade dysplasia
To view the detailed information on
esophageal cancer screening, click here.
Lung cancer screening starts among asymptomatic adults aged 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit smoking within the past 15 years. According to the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence, mortality, and prevalence, Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death in both males and females (18.4% of the total cancer deaths). 
Recommendations for lung cancer screening:
Annual screening (every year)
Age for screening
Eligibility for screening based on smoking history
Patient has 30 or greater than 30-pack-year smoking history and patient is a current smoker or quite smoking within the last 15 years.
Discontinuation of screening
Age greater than 80 or
Patient successfully quit smoking for 15 years and beyond or
Patient has other medical problems that significantly limit life expectancy or ability/willingness to undergo lung cancer surgery.
There are no recommendations for screening
ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women although the better outcome is associated with early diagnosis.   Transvaginal ultrasound and serum cancer antigen 125 testings are readily available procedures that are commonly used to evaluate women with signs or symptoms of ovarian cancer and have been evaluated in screening studies. 
Recommendations for Ovarian cancer screening:
Ovarian cancer risk is increased and may present at a relatively younger age.
BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations
Recommendations for Prostate cancer screening:
Cancer screening recommendations developed and modified according to the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) Guidelines.
↑ 1.0 1.1
"Recommendation: Breast Cancer: Screening | United States Preventive Services Taskforce".
↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4
Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A (2018). "Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries". CA Cancer J Clin. 68 (6): 394–424. doi: 10.3322/caac.21492. PMID 30207593.
↑ 3.0 3.1
"Recommendation: Cervical Cancer: Screening | United States Preventive Services Taskforce".
↑ 4.0 4.1
US Preventive Services Task Force. Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, Curry SJ, Davidson KW, Epling JW; et al. (2016). "Screening for Colorectal Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". JAMA. 315 (23): 2564–2575. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.5989. PMID 27304597.
"Endometrial Cancer Screening".
↑ 6.0 6.1
"No. 291-Epidemiology and Investigations for Suspected Endometrial Cancer - Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada".
↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3
Domper Arnal MJ, Ferrández Arenas Á, Lanas Arbeloa Á (2015). "Esophageal cancer: Risk factors, screening and endoscopic treatment in Western and Eastern countries". World J Gastroenterol. 21 (26): 7933–43. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i26.7933. PMC . 4499337 PMID 26185366.
↑ 8.0 8.1
Lao-Sirieix P, Fitzgerald RC (2012). "Screening for oesophageal cancer". Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 9 (5): 278–87. doi: 10.1038/nrclinonc.2012.35. PMID 22430857.
Spechler SJ, Souza RF (2014). "Barrett's esophagus". N Engl J Med. 371 (9): 836–45. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1314704. PMID 25162890.
↑ 10.0 10.1
Yang J, Wei WQ, Niu J, Liu ZC, Yang CX, Qiao YL (2012). "Cost-benefit analysis of esophageal cancer endoscopic screening in high-risk areas of China". World J Gastroenterol. 18 (20): 2493–501. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i20.2493. PMC . 3360447 PMID 22654446.
"Recommendation: Lung Cancer: Screening | United States Preventive Services Taskforce" . Retrieved 8/3/2020.
Smith RA, Andrews KS, Brooks D, Fedewa SA, Manassaram-Baptiste D, Saslow D; et al. (2017). "Cancer screening in the United States, 2017: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening". CA Cancer J Clin. 67 (2): 100–121. doi: 10.3322/caac.21392. PMID 28170086.
Galea M, Gauci G, Calleja-Agius J, Schembri-Wismayer P (2017). "Peritoneal biomarkers in the early detection of ovarian cancer". Minerva Ginecol. 69 (1): 84–99. doi: 10.23736/S0026-4784.16.03943-5. PMID 27284942.
↑ 14.0 14.1
"Recommendation: Ovarian Cancer: Screening | United States Preventive Services Taskforce".
↑ 15.0 15.1
"Recommendation: Prostate Cancer: Screening | United States Preventive Services Taskforce".