COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Jump to: navigation, search

WikiDoc Resources for COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Articles

Most recent articles on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Most cited articles on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Review articles on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Articles on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Images of COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Photos of COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Podcasts & MP3s on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Videos on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Bandolier on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

TRIP on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Clinical Trials on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

NICE Guidance on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

CDC on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Books

Books on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

News

COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension in the news

Be alerted to news on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

News trends on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Commentary

Blogs on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Definitions

Definitions of COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Discussion groups on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Patient Handouts on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Directions to Hospitals Treating COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Risk calculators and risk factors for COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Causes & Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Diagnostic studies for COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Treatment of COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

International

COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension en Espanol

COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension en Francais

Business

COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension in the Marketplace

Patents on COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension

For COVID-19 frequently asked inpatient questions, click here
For COVID-19 frequently asked outpatient questions, click here
For COVID-19 patient information, click here

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [2]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sara Zand, M.D.

Synonyms and Keywords:

Overview

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is determined as an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) of 25 mm Hg or greater at rest. It occurs due to pulmonary arterial remodeling and vasoconstriction prompting an increase in pulmonary artery pressure and finally leading to right heart failure. Few cases of Covid-19 with PH were found and it seems due to keeping social distance and quarantine, the number of cases is underestimated. PH is a rare disease and studies about PH during SARS-CoV disease in 2003 implied the role of inflammation in this process.

Historical Perspective

Classification

  1. Pulmonary hypertension due to lung disease or hypoxia.
  2. Microvascular thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

Pathophysiology

  • The SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV virus genomes are highly similar, and patients infected with these viruses have common pathological features.[1]
  • The pathogenesis of PH in COVID-19 is characterized by pulmonary vasoconstriction due to lack of ACE2 and pulmonary microthromboembolism due to local endothelial cell dysfunction.
  • Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is responsible for hemostasis of blood pressure and electrolyte balance and inflammatory response.
  • Renin is a protease that is generated in the kidney and cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin1, Then angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) cleaves angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2.
  • Angiotensin 2 is a key factor of RAS and has two receptors including type 1 and type 2.
  • Unbalance between ACE/Ang II/AT1R pathway and ACE2/Ang (1-7) receptor pathway in the RAS system will induce multi-system inflammation.[2]
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and neprilysin hydrolyze angiotensin 2 to anti inflammatory agents including Ang1–7, Ang III, Ang IV, and Ang A.[3]
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was a receptor of spike protein on SARS corona virus in epithelial cell and after attaching virus the activity of enzyme(ACE2) was decreased and then virus spread quickly.[4][5]
  • Lack of ACE2 causes elevation in angiotensin 2 level causing vascular permeability and lung edema and neutrophil infiltration and further lung deterioration.
  • ACE2 has anti inflammation effect and protected the lung from acute lung injury.[6]
  • Phosphorilized ACE2 is a much more stable form in which it converts angiotensin 2 to angiotensin 1-7 and increases the bioavailability of endothelial nitric oxide synthase-derived NO.
  • Lack of phosphorilized ACE2 causes vasoconstriction and pulmonary hypertension.[7]
  • Nitric oxide inhalation for SARS-corona patients was correlated with vasodilation and relaxation of pulmonary artery, reduction in pulmonary artery pressure and improvement in arterial oxygenation.[8]
  • Endothelin-1 caused downregulated ACE2 expression in lung epithelial cells and reduced pulmonary vasoconstriction.[9]
  • On microscopic histopathological analysis, pulmonary wall edema,hyalin thrombosis, inflammatory cell infiltration of pulmonary microvasculature , vessle thrombosis due to diffuse alveolar damage and septal inflammation are characteristic findings of PH in COVID-19.[10]
Coronavirus virion structure [1]

Causes

  • Factors contributing to the microthrombi formation in the pulmonary artery in COVID-19 include:
  1. Hypoxia following diffuse alveolar and interestitial inflammation. Hypoxia may induce endothelial dysfunction and activation of coagulation cascade in small vessles.[11]
  2. ACE2 receptor expression downregulation after attaching the spike site of COVID-19 to pneumocytes type2.
  3. Activation of the innate coagulation cascade with older age.
  4. Mechanical ventilation may induce immune micro thrombosis in small arteries.[12]
  5. Bacterial superinfection.

Differentiating COVID-19-associated pulmonary hypertension from other Diseases


Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy Pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy
Onset Acute Subacute
Pulmonary involvement (%) 50% 100%
Thrombosis Multi-organ clotting Mainly lung
Bleeding Generalised Intrapulmonary microhaemorrhage
Liver function Decreased fibrinogen and other clotting factors; increased transaminase +++ Preservation of liver synthetic function; +/−
Anemia +++
Thrombocytopenia +++ Normal or low
cytopenia ++ No.may be lymphopenia is a finding of COVID-19
Creatine kinase + +
Troponin T + ++
Elevated prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time +++/+++ + or normal
Fibrinogen levels Decreased Normal or slight increase
Fibrin degradation products or D-dimer Increased Increased
C-reactive protein Elevated Elevated
Ferritin elevation +++ Elevated
Hypercytokinaemia +++ ++

Epidemiology and Demographics

  • Data on the incidence of pulmonary hypertension in COVID-19 patients is limited.
  • There is no racial predilection to pulmonary hypertension in COVID-19.
  • Male are more commonly affected by COVID-19 than female, therefore, the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension induced by Covid-19 is higher in the male gender.

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

  • Laboratory findings consistent with the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in COVID-19 include:
  1. Increased D-dimer (due to pulmonary vascular bed thrombosis with fibrinolysis).
  2. Elevated concentration of cardiac enzymes due to right ventricular strain induced by pulmonary hypertension.
  3. Normal fibrinogen and platelet level.

Electrocardiogram

X-ray

Echocardiography or Ultrasound

CT scan

  • Chest CT scan even unenhanced may be helpful in the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in COVID-19.. Findings on CT scan suggestive pulmonary hypertension in COVID-19 in comparison with baseline chest CT scan include:[18]
  1. Pulmonary artery dilation above 27mm in women and 29mm in men.
  2. Increased median Pulmonary Artery/Aorta ratio from 26mm to 31mm after SARS-COVID infection.

MRI

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

  • There are no other diagnostic studies associated with pulmonary hypertension in COVID-19.

Treatment

Medical Therapy

  1. Pulmonary vasodilation.Nitric oxide has antiviral and anti inflammatory effect in SARS-CoV .[24]
  2. Supplement oxygen for correction of hypoxia and prevention of pulmonary vasoconstriction to maintain oxygen saturation above 92%.
  3. Avoidance of inhaled prostacyclin and using the parenteral form for the protection of health care providers.
  4. Endothelin receptor antagonist agents.
  5. Anticoagulation therapy if there is evidence of thromboembolic mechanism.[25]
  6. Correction of hypotension with fluild and inotropic agents in order to avoid decreased RV coronary perfusion and RV ejection.
  7. Correction of acidosis, hypercarbia, hypothermia, hypervolemia.
  8. Intubation is not recommended due to the effect of positive pressure ventilation in increasing RV preload and also vasodilatory effect of sedation agents impending systemic hypotension and hemodynamic collapse.
  9. If intubation is indicated, a vasoactive agent should be given before anesthesia. Etomidate is recommended for general anesthesia due to little effect on cardiac contractility and vascular tone.
  10. Ventilator should be set with low tidal volumes and moderate positive end-expiratory pressure for minimum airway pressure and sufficient oxygenation and ventilation.

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

  • There are no established measures for the secondary prevention of pulmonary hypertension in COVID-19.

References

  1. Zhu, Na; Zhang, Dingyu; Wang, Wenling; Li, Xingwang; Yang, Bo; Song, Jingdong; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Baoying; Shi, Weifeng; Lu, Roujian; Niu, Peihua; Zhan, Faxian; Ma, Xuejun; Wang, Dayan; Xu, Wenbo; Wu, Guizhen; Gao, George F.; Tan, Wenjie (2020). "A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019". New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (8): 727–733. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001017. ISSN 0028-4793.
  2. Konishi H, Kuroda S, Inada Y, Fujisawa Y (March 1994). "Novel subtype of human angiotensin II type 1 receptor: cDNA cloning and expression". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 199 (2): 467–74. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.1252. PMID 8135787.
  3. Chappell MC (October 2012). "Nonclassical renin-angiotensin system and renal function". Compr Physiol. 2 (4): 2733–52. doi:10.1002/cphy.c120002. PMC 4186703. PMID 23720263.
  4. Li, Wenhui; Moore, Michael J.; Vasilieva, Natalya; Sui, Jianhua; Wong, Swee Kee; Berne, Michael A.; Somasundaran, Mohan; Sullivan, John L.; Luzuriaga, Katherine; Greenough, Thomas C.; Choe, Hyeryun; Farzan, Michael (2003). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus". Nature. 426 (6965): 450–454. doi:10.1038/nature02145. ISSN 0028-0836.
  5. Glowacka I, Bertram S, Herzog P, Pfefferle S, Steffen I, Muench MO, Simmons G, Hofmann H, Kuri T, Weber F, Eichler J, Drosten C, Pöhlmann S (January 2010). "Differential downregulation of ACE2 by the spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus NL63". J. Virol. 84 (2): 1198–205. doi:10.1128/JVI.01248-09. PMC 2798380. PMID 19864379.
  6. Imai, Yumiko; Kuba, Keiji; Rao, Shuan; Huan, Yi; Guo, Feng; Guan, Bin; Yang, Peng; Sarao, Renu; Wada, Teiji; Leong-Poi, Howard; Crackower, Michael A.; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Hui, Chi-Chung; Hein, Lutz; Uhlig, Stefan; Slutsky, Arthur S.; Jiang, Chengyu; Penninger, Josef M. (2005). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure". Nature. 436 (7047): 112–116. doi:10.1038/nature03712. ISSN 0028-0836.
  7. Zhang, Jiao; Dong, Jianjie; Martin, Marcy; He, Ming; Gongol, Brendan; Marin, Traci L.; Chen, Lili; Shi, Xinxing; Yin, Yanjun; Shang, Fenqing; Wu, Yan; Huang, Hsi-Yuan; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Yu; Kang, Jian; Moya, Esteban A.; Huang, Hsien-Da; Powell, Frank L.; Chen, Zhen; Thistlethwaite, Patricia A.; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Shyy, John Y.-J. (2018). "AMP-activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 in Endothelium Mitigates Pulmonary Hypertension". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 198 (4): 509–520. doi:10.1164/rccm.201712-2570OC. ISSN 1073-449X.
  8. Chen, L.; Liu, P.; Gao, H.; Sun, B.; Chao, D.; Wang, F.; Zhu, Y.; Hedenstierna, G.; Wang, C. G. (2004). "Inhalation of Nitric Oxide in the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A Rescue Trial in Beijing". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 39 (10): 1531–1535. doi:10.1086/425357. ISSN 1058-4838.
  9. Zhang H, Li Y, Zeng Y, Wu R, Ou J (2013). "Endothelin-1 downregulates angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 expression in human bronchial epithelial cells". Pharmacology. 91 (5–6): 297–304. doi:10.1159/000350395. PMID 23751363.
  10. Fox, Sharon E.; Akmatbekov, Aibek; Harbert, Jack L.; Li, Guang; Brown, J. Quincy; Vander Heide, Richard S. (2020). doi:10.1101/2020.04.06.20050575. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. Ten, Vadim S.; Pinsky, David J. (2002). "Endothelial response to hypoxia: physiologic adaptation and pathologic dysfunction". Current Opinion in Critical Care. 8 (3): 242–250. doi:10.1097/00075198-200206000-00008. ISSN 1070-5295.
  12. Engelmann B, Massberg S (January 2013). "Thrombosis as an intravascular effector of innate immunity". Nat. Rev. Immunol. 13 (1): 34–45. doi:10.1038/nri3345. PMID 23222502.
  13. McGonagle, Dennis; Sharif, Kassem; O'Regan, Anthony; Bridgewood, Charlie (2020). "The Role of Cytokines including Interleukin-6 in COVID-19 induced Pneumonia and Macrophage Activation Syndrome-Like Disease". Autoimmunity Reviews. 19 (6): 102537. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102537. ISSN 1568-9972.
  14. McGonagle, Dennis; O'Donnell, James S; Sharif, Kassem; Emery, Paul; Bridgewood, Charles (2020). "Immune mechanisms of pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy in COVID-19 pneumonia". The Lancet Rheumatology. 2 (7): e437–e445. doi:10.1016/S2665-9913(20)30121-1. ISSN 2665-9913.
  15. Levi M, van der Poll T (January 2017). "Coagulation and sepsis". Thromb. Res. 149: 38–44. doi:10.1016/j.thromres.2016.11.007. PMID 27886531.
  16. Ji HL, Zhao R, Matalon S, Matthay MA (July 2020). "Elevated Plasmin(ogen) as a Common Risk Factor for COVID-19 Susceptibility". Physiol. Rev. 100 (3): 1065–1075. doi:10.1152/physrev.00013.2020. PMC 7191627 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 32216698 Check |pmid= value (help).
  17. Zhou, Fei; Yu, Ting; Du, Ronghui; Fan, Guohui; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhibo; Xiang, Jie; Wang, Yeming; Song, Bin; Gu, Xiaoying; Guan, Lulu; Wei, Yuan; Li, Hui; Wu, Xudong; Xu, Jiuyang; Tu, Shengjin; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Hua; Cao, Bin (2020). "Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study". The Lancet. 395 (10229): 1054–1062. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3. ISSN 0140-6736.
  18. Spagnolo, Pietro; Cozzi, Andrea; Foà, Riccardo Alessandro; Spinazzola, Angelo; Monfardini, Lorenzo; Bnà, Claudio; Alì, Marco; Schiaffino, Simone; Sardanelli, Francesco (2020). "CT-derived pulmonary vascular metrics and clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients". Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery. 10 (6): 1325–1333. doi:10.21037/qims-20-546. ISSN 2223-4292.
  19. Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Duarte‐Neto, Amaro Nunes; Almeida Monteiro, Renata Aparecida; Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Oliveira, Ellen Pierre; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais; Negri, Elnara Marcia (2020). "Pathological evidence of pulmonary thrombotic phenomena in severe COVID‐19". Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 18 (6): 1517–1519. doi:10.1111/jth.14844. ISSN 1538-7933.
  20. Frazier AA, Burke AP (December 2012). "The imaging of pulmonary hypertension". Semin. Ultrasound CT MR. 33 (6): 535–51. doi:10.1053/j.sult.2012.06.002. PMID 23168063.
  21. Galiè, Nazzareno; Humbert, Marc; Vachiery, Jean-Luc; Gibbs, Simon; Lang, Irene; Torbicki, Adam; Simonneau, Gérald; Peacock, Andrew; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton; Beghetti, Maurice; Ghofrani, Ardeschir; Gomez Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Hansmann, Georg; Klepetko, Walter; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Matucci, Marco; McDonagh, Theresa; Pierard, Luc A.; Trindade, Pedro T.; Zompatori, Maurizio; Hoeper, Marius (2016). "2015 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension". European Heart Journal. 37 (1): 67–119. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv317. ISSN 0195-668X.
  22. Gordon, Claire; Collard, Charles D; Pan, Wei (2010). "Intraoperative management of pulmonary hypertension and associated right heart failure". Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology. 23 (1): 49–56. doi:10.1097/ACO.0b013e3283346c51. ISSN 0952-7907.
  23. Pritts, Chad D; Pearl, Ronald G (2010). "Anesthesia for patients with pulmonary hypertension". Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology. 23 (3): 411–416. doi:10.1097/ACO.0b013e32833953fb. ISSN 0952-7907.
  24. Chen L, Liu P, Gao H, Sun B, Chao D, Wang F, Zhu Y, Hedenstierna G, Wang CG (November 2004). "Inhalation of nitric oxide in the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome: a rescue trial in Beijing". Clin. Infect. Dis. 39 (10): 1531–5. doi:10.1086/425357. PMC 7107896 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 15546092.
  25. Magro C, Mulvey JJ, Berlin D, Nuovo G, Salvatore S, Harp J, Baxter-Stoltzfus A, Laurence J (June 2020). "Complement associated microvascular injury and thrombosis in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 infection: A report of five cases". Transl Res. 220: 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.trsl.2020.04.007. PMC 7158248 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 32299776 Check |pmid= value (help).






.