Blepharospasm

Jump to: navigation, search

For patient information page on this topic click here

Blepharospasm
Gray379.png
Left orbicularis oculi, seen from behind.

WikiDoc Resources for Blepharospasm

Articles

Most recent articles on Blepharospasm

Most cited articles on Blepharospasm

Review articles on Blepharospasm

Articles on Blepharospasm in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Blepharospasm

Images of Blepharospasm

Photos of Blepharospasm

Podcasts & MP3s on Blepharospasm

Videos on Blepharospasm

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Blepharospasm

Bandolier on Blepharospasm

TRIP on Blepharospasm

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Blepharospasm at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Blepharospasm

Clinical Trials on Blepharospasm at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Blepharospasm

NICE Guidance on Blepharospasm

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Blepharospasm

CDC on Blepharospasm

Books

Books on Blepharospasm

News

Blepharospasm in the news

Be alerted to news on Blepharospasm

News trends on Blepharospasm

Commentary

Blogs on Blepharospasm

Definitions

Definitions of Blepharospasm

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Blepharospasm

Discussion groups on Blepharospasm

Patient Handouts on Blepharospasm

Directions to Hospitals Treating Blepharospasm

Risk calculators and risk factors for Blepharospasm

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Blepharospasm

Causes & Risk Factors for Blepharospasm

Diagnostic studies for Blepharospasm

Treatment of Blepharospasm

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Blepharospasm

International

Blepharospasm en Espanol

Blepharospasm en Francais

Business

Blepharospasm in the Marketplace

Patents on Blepharospasm

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Blepharospasm

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Synonyms and Keywords: Eyelid twitch

Overview

A blepharospasm ('eye twitching') is any abnormal tic or twitch of the eyelid (from blepharo, eyelid, and spasm, an uncontrolled muscle contraction). However, it is normally distinguished from less serious disorders and refers to Benign Essential Blepharospasm, a focal dystonia (a neurological movement disorder involving involuntary and sustained muscle contractions) of the muscles around the eyes. The cause is often undetermined, but fatigue or a an irritant are possible contributing factors. Symptoms usually last for a few days then disappear without treatment, but in some cases the twitching is chronic and persistent. Occasionally, the symptoms are severe enough to result in effective blindness.

Causes

In most cases, blepharospasm seems to develop spontaneously. Many blepharospasm patients have a previous history of dry eyes and/or light sensitivity. Blepharospasm can also come from abnormal functioning of the brain's basal ganglia. Concomitance with dry eye, as well as other dystonias such as Meige's syndrome, has been observed. Some drugs can induce blepharospasm, such as Dimercaprol, those used to treat Parkinson's disease, as well as sensitivity to hormone treatments, including estrogen replacement therapy for women going through menopause. Blepharospasms can be caused by concussions in some rare cases, when a blow to the back of the head damages the basal ganglia.

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

  • Uncontrollable tics or twitches of the eye muscles and surrounding facial area
  • Excessive blinking of the eyes, or forced closure of durations longer than the typical blink reflex
  • Dryness of the eyes
  • Sensitivity to the sun and bright light

Treatment

Medical Therapy

  • Drug therapy for blepharospasm has proved generally unpredictable and short-termed. Finding an effective regimen for any patient usually requires trial and error over time. In some cases a dietary supplement of magnesium chloride has been found effective.
  • Botulin toxin injections have been used to induce localized partial paralysis.

Non-Pharmacotherapy

  • Dark glasses are often worn because of sunlight sensitivity, as well as to hide the eyes from others.
  • Stress management and support groups can help sufferers deal with the disease and prevent social isolation.
  • Using tweezers to remove excess eyelashes from the outer corner of the eyelid may sometimes resolve this condition.

Surgery

Patients that do not respond well to medication or botulinum toxin injection are candidates for surgical therapy. The most effective surgical treatment has been protractor myectomy, the removal of muscles responsible for eyelid closure.

References

External Links

  • Blepharospasm Resource Guide from the National Eye Institute (NEI).



Linked-in.jpg