Jump to navigation Jump to search

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [3]

Template:Infobox Beverage Coffee is a widely consumed stimulant beverage prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called beans, of the coffee plant. Coffee was first consumed in the 9th century, when it was discovered in the highlands of Ethiopia.[1] From there, it spread to Egypt and Yemen, and by the 15th century had reached Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe and the Americas.[2] Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide.[3]

Coffee have berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown species are Coffea canephora (also known as Coffea robusta) and Coffea arabica. These are cultivated in Latin America, southeast Asia, and Africa. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted, undergoing several physical and chemical changes. They are roasted to various degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be found in a country named tutscua.

Coffee has played an important role in many societies throughout modern history. In Africa and Yemen, it was used in religious ceremonies. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its consumption until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia.[4] It was banned in Ottoman Turkey in the 17th century for political reasons, and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. Coffee is an important export commodity: in 2004, coffee was the top agricultural export for 12 countries;[5] and in 2005, it was the world's seventh largest legal agricultural export by value.[6] Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions; whether the effects of coffee are positive or negative is still disputed.[7]


The English word coffee first came to be used in the early- to mid-1600s, but early forms of the word date to the last decade of the 1500s.[8] It comes from the Italian caffè. This, in turn, was borrowed from the Ottoman Turkish kahveh, and the Arabic qahwa (قهوة) collectively.[9] The origin of the Arabic term is uncertain; it is either derived from the name of the Kaffa (Ethiopic ከፋ) region in western Ethiopia, where coffee was cultivated, or by a truncation of qahwat al-būnn, meaning "wine of the bean" in Arabic. In Eritrea, "būnn" (also meaning "wine of the bean" in Tigrinya) is used.[10] The Amharic and Afan Oromo name for coffee is bunna.


File:Leipzig coffeebaum 815.jpg
Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress receiving a cup of coffee from a boy.

Coffee use can be traced at least to as early as the 9th century, when it appeared in the highlands of Ethiopia.[1] According to legend, Ethiopian shepherds were the first to observe the influence of the caffeine in coffee beans when the goats appeared to "dance" and to have an increased level of energy after consuming wild coffee berries.[11] The legend names the shepherd "Kaldi." From Ethiopia, coffee spread to Egypt and Yemen,[12] and by the 15th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa.

In 1583, Leonhard Rauwolf, a German physician, gave this description of coffee after returning from a ten year trip to the Near East:[13]

A beverage as black as ink, useful against numerous illnesses, particularly those of the stomach. Its consumers take it in the morning, quite frankly, in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. It is composed of water and the fruit from a bush called bunnu.

From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy. The thriving trade between Venice and North Africa, Egypt, and the Middle East brought many goods, including coffee, to the Venetian port. From Venice, it was introduced to the rest of Europe. Coffee became more widely accepted after it was deemed a Christian beverage by Pope Clement VIII in 1600, despite appeals to ban the "Muslim drink". The first European coffee house opened in Italy in 1645.[2] The Dutch were the first to import coffee on a large scale, and they were among the first to defy the Arab prohibition on the exportation of plants or unroasted seeds when Pieter van den Broeck smuggled seedlings from Aden into Europe in 1616.[14] The Dutch later grew the crop in Java and Ceylon.[15] Through the efforts of the British East India Company, coffee became popular in England as well. It was introduced in France in 1657, and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna, when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks.[16]

When coffee reached North America during the colonial period, it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe. During the Revolutionary War, however, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was partly due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants.[17] After the War of 1812, during which Britain temporarily cut off access to tea imports, the Americans' taste for coffee grew, and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States.[18]


File:Coffee Flowers Show.jpg
A flowering Coffea arabica tree in a Brazilian plantation

The Coffea plant is native to subtropical Africa and southern Asia.[19] It belongs to a genus of 10 species of flowering plants of the family Rubiaceae. It is an evergreen shrub or small tree that may grow 5 meters (16 ft) tall when unpruned. The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 10–15 centimeters (3.9–5.9 in) long and 6.0 centimeters (2.4 in) wide. It produces clusters of fragrant, white flowers that bloom simultaneously. The fruit berry is oval, about 1.5 centimeters (0.6 in) long,[20] and green when immature, but ripens to yellow, then crimson, becoming black on drying. Each berry usually contains two seeds, but from 5 to 10 percent of the berries[21] have only one; these are called peaberries.[22] Berries ripen in seven to nine months.


File:Carte Coffea robusta arabic.png
Map showing areas of coffee cultivation
r:Coffea canephora
m:Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica.
a:Coffea arabica.

Coffee is usually propagated by seed. The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season; half are eliminated naturally. Coffee is often intercropped with food crops, such as corn, beans, or rice, during the first few years of cultivation.[20]

The two main cultivated species of the coffee plant are Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica. Arabica coffee (from C. arabica) is considered more suitable for drinking than robusta coffee (from C. canephora); robusta tends to be bitter and have less flavor than arabica. For this reason, about three-fourths of coffee cultivated worldwide is C. arabica.[19] However, C. canephora is less susceptible to disease than C. arabica and can be cultivated in environments where C. arabica will not thrive. Robusta coffee also contains about 40–50 percent more caffeine than arabica.[1] For this reason, it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. Good quality robustas are used in some espresso blends to provide a better foam head and to lower the ingredient cost.[23] Other cultivated species include Coffea liberica and Coffea esliaca, believed to be indigenous to Liberia and southern Sudan, respectively.[1]

Most arabica coffee beans originate from either Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, or Asia. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa, throughout southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil.[19] Beans from different countries or regions usually have distinctive characteristics such as flavor, aroma, body, and acidity.[24] These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.[25] Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java, or Kona.

Ecological effects

Originally, coffee farming was done in the shade of trees, which provided habitat for many animals and insects.[26] Today, farmers use sun cultivation, in which coffee is grown in rows under full sun with little or no forest canopy. This causes berries to ripen more rapidly and bushes to produce higher yields but requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides.[27] Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation, pesticide pollution, habitat destruction, and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices.[26] The American Birding Association has led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees, which it says are sustainably harvested.[28] While certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems, they still compare poorly to native forest in terms of habitat value,[29] and some researchers are concerned that the push for "shade grown" coffee may actually be encouraging deforestation in ecologically sensitive regions.[30]



File:Espresso-roasted coffee beans.jpg
Roasted coffee beans

Coffee berries and their seeds undergo multi-step processing before they become the roasted coffee with which most consumers are familiar. First, coffee berries are picked, generally by hand. Then, the flesh of the berry is removed, usually by machine, and the seeds—usually called beans—are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean. When the fermentation is finished, the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue, generating massive amounts of highly polluted coffee wastewater. Finally the seeds are dried and sorted and labeled as green coffee beans.[31]

The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state, and all coffee is roasted before it is consumed. It can be sold roasted by the supplier, or it can be home roasted.[32] The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost but increases in volume, causing it to become less dense. The density of the bean also influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging. The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches 200 °C (392 °F), though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates.[33] During roasting, caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean, changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown, changing the color of the bean.[34] Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. During roasting, aromatic oils, acids, and caffeine weaken, changing the flavor; at 205 °C (400 °F), other oils start to develop.[33] One of these oils is caffeol, created at about 200 °C (392 °F), which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor.[15]

File:Coffee roasting grades.png
Grades of coffee roasting; from left: unroasted (or "green"), light, cinnamon, medium, high, city, full city, French and Italian[35]

Depending on the color of the roasted beans, they will be labeled as light, cinnamon, medium, high, city, full city, French, or Italian roast.[35] Darker roasts are generally smoother, because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor. Lighter roasts have more caffeine, resulting in a slight bitterness, and a stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids destroyed by longer roasting times.[36] A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing.[37] Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement, though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans.[33] Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee, but all involve either soaking beans in hot water or steaming them, then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils.[15] Decaffeination is often done by processing companies, and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry.[15]


Once roasted, coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean. Ideal conditions are air-tight and cool. Air, moisture, heat and light are the environmental factors in order of importance to preserving flavor in coffee beans.

Typical commercial coffee containers in which coffee is purchased are generally not ideal for long-term storage. Some newer packages contain one-way valves which allow for the release of carbon dioxide (a byproduct of the roasting process) while preventing air from entering the bag.


File:Linea doubleespresso.jpg
Espresso brewing, with dark reddish-brown crema

Coffee beans must be ground and brewed in order to create a beverage. Grinding the roasted coffee beans is done at a roastery, in a grocery store, or in the home. They are most commonly ground at a roastery then packaged and sold to the consumer, though "whole bean" coffee can be ground at home. Coffee beans may be ground in several ways. A burr mill uses revolving elements to crush or tear the bean, an electric grinder chops the beans with blades moving at high speeds, and a mortar and pestle grinds the beans to a powder.[38] The type of grind is often named after the brewing method for which it is generally used. Turkish grind is the finest grind, while coffee percolator or French press are the coarsest grind. The most common grinds are between the extremes; a medium grind is used in most common home coffee brewing machines.[39]

Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled, steeped, or pressured. Brewing coffee by boiling was the earliest method, and Turkish coffee is an example of this method.[40] It is prepared by powdering the beans with a mortar and pestle, then adding the powder to water and bringing it to a boil in a pot called a cezve or, in Greek, a briki. This produces a strong coffee with a layer of foam on the surface.[40]

Machines such as percolators or automatic coffeemakers brew coffee by gravity. In an automatic coffeemaker, hot water drips onto coffee grounds held in a coffee filter made of paper or perforated metal, allowing the water to seep through the ground coffee while absorbing its oils and essences. Gravity causes the liquid to pass into a carafe or pot while the used coffee grounds are retained in the filter.[41] In a percolator, boiling water is forced into a chamber above a filter by pressure created by boiling. The water then passes downwards through the grounds due to gravity, repeating the process until shut off by an internal timer.[41]

Coffee may also be brewed by steeping in a device such as a French press (also known as a cafetière). Ground coffee and hot water are combined in a coffee press and left to brew for a few minutes. A plunger is then depressed to separate the coffee grounds, which remain at the bottom of the container. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water, all the coffee oils remain in the beverage, making it stronger and leaving more sediment than in coffee made by an automatic coffee machine.[42]

The espresso method forces hot, but not boiling, pressurized water through ground coffee. As a result of brewing under high pressure (ideally between 9-10 atm) the espresso beverage is more concentrated (as much as 10 to 15 times the amount of coffee to water as gravity brewing methods can produce) and has a more complex physical and chemical constitution. A well prepared espresso has a reddish-brown foam called crema that floats on the surface.[39] The drink "Americano" is popularly thought to have been named after American soldiers in WW II who found the European way of drinking espresso too strong. Baristas would cut the espresso with hot water for them.

File:Latte art.jpg
Presentation is an integral part of coffeehouse service, as illustrated by the fanciful design layered into this latte


Once brewed, coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. Drip brewed, percolated, or French-pressed/cafetière coffee may be served with no additives (colloquially known as black) or with either sugar, milk or cream, or both. When served cold, it is called iced coffee.

Espresso-based coffee has a wide variety of possible presentations. In its most basic form, it is served alone as a "shot" or in the more watered down style café américano—a shot or two of espresso with hot water.[43] The Americano should be served with the espresso shots on top of the hot water to preserve the crema. Milk can be added in various forms to espresso: steamed milk makes a caffè latte,[44] equal parts espresso and milk froth make a cappuccino,[43] and a dollop of hot, foamed milk on top creates a caffè macchiato.[45]

A number of products are sold for the convenience of consumers who do not want to prepare their own coffee. Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water.[46] Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years, particularly in Japan and South Korea. Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee, much like brewed or percolated coffee, available both hot and cold. Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks, which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States.[47] Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time. It is described as having a flavor about as good as low-grade robusta coffee and costs about 10 cents a cup to produce. The machines used can process up to 500 cups an hour, or 1,000 if the water is preheated.[48]

Social aspects

A coffeehouse in Palestine (1900)
See also: Coffeehouse for a social history of coffee, and caffè for specifically Italian traditions.

Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. At least 1,000 years ago, traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern day Yemen), where Muslim monks began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. At first, the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies.[citation needed]

Coffee became the substitute beverage in place of wine in spiritual practices where wine was forbidden.[11] Coffee drinking was briefly prohibited to Muslims as haraam in the early years of the 16th century, but this was quickly overturned. Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca, accused of being a heretic substance, and its production and consumption was briefly repressed. It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV.[49] Coffee, regarded as a Muslim drink, was prohibited to Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889; it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to its banning in England, among other places.[50]

A contemporary example of coffee prohibition can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a religion with over 13 million followers worldwide, which calls for coffee abstinence. The organization claims that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee.[51] This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health, given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith, in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. It does not identify coffee by name, but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly", which has been interpreted to forbid both coffee and tea.[51]

Health and pharmacology

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Most studies are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption.[7]

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of the liver,[52] and gout. Some health effects are due to the caffeine content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components.[53] For example, the antioxidants in coffee prevent free radicals from causing cell damage.[54]

Coffee's negative health effects are mostly due to its caffeine content. Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.[55] Excess coffee consumption may lead to a magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesaemia[56], and may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory, by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought, but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.[57] Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults.[58]

An American scientist Yaser Dorri has recently suggested that coffee beans can restore the appetite after cooking and refresh olfactory receptors. He believes the intense odorants in coffee release the sensory receptors in the nose. This scientist sugguest that people can regain their appetite by smelling coffee beans. He has suggested this method to be also used for animals in research institutes. [59]

Caffeine content

Caffeine molecule

Depending on the type of coffee and method of preparation, the caffeine content of a single serving can vary greatly. On average, a single cup of coffee of about 207 milliliters (7 fluid ounces) or a single shot of espresso of about 30 mL (1oz) can be expected to contain the following amounts of caffeine:[60][61][62]


Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe.[3] Worldwide, 6.7 million metric tons of coffee were produced annually in 1998–2000, and the forecast is a rise to 7 million metric tons annually by 2010.[63]

Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation, but in recent years Vietnam has become a major producer of robusta beans.[64] Colombia is the third exporter and the largest producer of washed arabica coffee. Robusta coffees, traded in London at much lower prices than New York's arabica, are preferred by large industrial clients, such as multinational roasters and instant coffee producers, because of the lower cost. Four single roaster companies buy more than 50 percent of all of the annual production: Kraft, Nestlé, Procter & Gamble, and Sara Lee.[65] The preference of the "Big Four" coffee companies for cheap robusta is believed by many to have been a major contributing factor to the crash in coffee prices,[66] and the demand for high-quality arabica beans is only slowly recovering. Many experts believe the giant influx of cheap green coffee after the collapse of the International Coffee Agreement of 1975–1989 led to the prolonged price crisis from 1989 to 2004.[67] In 1997 the price of coffee in New York broke US$3.00/lb, but by late 2001 it had fallen to US$0.43/lb.[68] In 2007, wholesale coffee was about US$1/lb (e.g. 69 cents in London in March to 134 cents in New York in October), with robusta being about 70% of the price of arabica. Retail prices varied from an average of $3 in Poland to $3.50 in the US to $17 in the UK.[69]

The concept of fair trade labeling, which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated pre-harvest price, began with the Max Havelaar Foundation's labelling program in the Netherlands. In 2004, 24,222 metric tons out of 7,050,000 produced worldwide were fair trade; in 2005, 33,991 metric tons out of 6,685,000 were fair trade, an increase from 0.34 percent to 0.51 percent.[70][71] A number of studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities that grow it. A study in 2002 found that fair trade strengthened producer organizations, improved returns to small producers, and positively affected their quality of life.[72] A 2003 study concluded that fair trade has "greatly improved the well-being of small-scale coffee farmers and their families"[73] by providing access to credit and external development funding[74] and greater access to training, giving them the ability to improve the quality of their coffee.[75] The families of fair trade producers were also more stable than those who were not involved in fair trade, and their children had better access to education.[76] A 2005 study of Bolivian coffee producers concluded that Fairtrade certification has had a positive impact on local coffee prices, economically benefiting all coffee producers, Fairtrade certified or not.[77]

The production and consumption of "Fair Trade Coffee" has grown in recent years as some local and national coffee chains have started to offer fair trade alternatives. [78]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Mekete Belachew, "Coffee," in von Uhlig, Siegbert, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica (Weissbaden: Horrowitz, 2003), p.763.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Meyers, Hannah (2005-03-07). ""Suave Molecules of Mocha" -- Coffee, Chemistry, and Civilization". Retrieved 2007-02-03.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Villanueva, Cristina M. (2006). "Total and specific fluid consumption as determinants of bladder cancer risk". International Journal of Cancer. 118 (8): 2040–2047. doi:10.1002/ijc.21587. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  4. Richard Pankhurst, Economic History of Ethiopia (Addis Ababa: Haile Selassie I University, 1968), p. 198
  5. "FAO Statistical Yearbook 2004 Vol. 1/1 Table C.10: Most important imports and exports of agricultural products (in value terms)(2004)" (PDF). FAO Statistics Division. 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-13.
  6. "FAOSTAT Core Trade Data (commodities/years)". FAO Statistics Division. 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-24. To retrieve export values: Select the "commodities/years" tab. Under "subject", select "Export value of primary commodity." Under "country," select "World." Under "commodity," hold down the shift key while selecting all commodities under the "single commodity" category. Select the desired year and click "show data." A list of all commodities and their export values will be displayed.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Kummer, Corby (2003). The Joy of Coffee, pp 160–165.
  8. "Coffee". Etymology Dictionary Online. Douglas Harper. Retrieved 2007-10-07.
  9. "Coffee". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
  10. "Coffee". The Oxford English Dictionary Online. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "History of Coffee". Jameson Coffee.
  12. John K. Francis. "Coffea arabica L. RUBIACEAE" (PDF). Factsheet of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
  13. Léonard Rauwolf. Reise in die Morgenländer (in German).
  14. All About Coffee [1]
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Dobelis, Inge N., Ed.: Magic and Medicine of Plants. Pleasantville: The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc., 1986. Pages 370–371.
  16. Pendergrast, Mark (1999). Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-05467-6.
  17. Columbia Encyclopedia. "Coffee". Columbia University Press. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
  18. Template:Citeweb
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 "Botanical Aspects". International Coffee Organization. Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  20. 20.0 20.1 James A. Duke. "Coffea arabica L." Purdue University. Retrieved 2007-07-20.
  21. "Feature Article: Peaberry Coffee". Retrieved 2006-11-10.
  22. S. Hamon, M. Noirot, and F. Anthony, Developing a coffee core collection using the principal components score strategy with quantitative data (PDF), Core Collections of Plant Genetic Resources, 1995.
  23. Reynolds, Richard. "Robusta's Rehab". Coffee Geek. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
  24. Coffee: A Guide to Buying Brewing and Enjoying, 5th Edition, by Kenneth Davids
  25. Castle, Timothy (1991). The Perfect Cup: A Coffee Lover's Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Tasting. Da Capo Press. p. 158. ISBN 0201570483.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Janzen, Daniel H. (Editor) (1983). Natural History of Costa Rica. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226393348.
  27. Salvesen, David. "The Grind Over Sun Coffee". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
  28. Song Bird Coffee. Thanksgiving Coffee Company.
  29. Template:Cite paper
  30. Rappole, J.H. (2003). "Coffee and conservation". Conservation Biology. 17: 334–336. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  31. Kummer, Corby. The Joy of Coffee: The Essential Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying, Houghton Mifflin, 38. August 19, 2003. ISBN 978-0618302406.
  32. Kummer, Corby. The Joy of Coffee: The Essential Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying, Houghton Mifflin, 37. August 19, 2003. ISBN 978-0618302406.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Ball, Trent. "Coffee Roasting". Washington State University. Retrieved 2007-07-18. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  34. Kummer, Corby. The Joy of Coffee: The Essential Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying, Houghton Mifflin, 261. August 19, 2003. ISBN 978-0618302406.
  35. 35.0 35.1 Davids, Kenneth (1996). Home Coffee Roasting: Romance & Revival (excerpt). New York: St. Martin's Press. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
  36. Cipolla, Mauro. "Educational Primer: Degrees of Roast". Bellissimo Info Group. Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  37. "Coffee Roasting Operations". Bay Area Air Quality Management District. May 15, 1998. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
  38. Perry, Sara (April 2003). The New Complete Coffee Book: A Gourmet Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Cooking. Diane Publishing Co. p. 27. ISBN 978-0756777418.
  39. 39.0 39.1 Rothstein, Scott. "Brewing Techniques". Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Ukers, William Harrison (January 1, 1993). All about Coffee. Gale Research; 2d ed edition. p. 725. ISBN 978-0810340923.
  41. 41.0 41.1 Levy, Joel (November 2002). Really Useful: The Origins of Everyday Things. Firefly Books. p. 1948. ISBN 978-1552976227.
  42. Davids, Kenneth (1991). Coffee: A Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying. 101 Productions. p. 128. ISBN 978-1564265005.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Castle, Timothy (1999). The Great Coffee Book. Ten Speed Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-1580081221. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  44. Fried, Eunice (November 1993). "The lowdown on caffe latte". Black Enterprise. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
  45. Miller, Emily Wise (May 2003). The Food Lover's Guide to Florence: With Culinary Excursions in Tuscany. Ten Speed Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-1580084352.
  46. Hobhouse, Henry (December 13, 2005). Seeds of Wealth: Five Plants That Made Men Rich. Shoemaker & Hoard. p. 294. ISBN 978-1593760892.
  47. Associated Press (2005-12-06). "Report: Coke, Pepsi faceoff brewing". CNN Money. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
  48. Regarding liquid coffee concentrate: Wall Street Journal, March 21, 2005, page C4, Commodities Report
  49. Hopkins, Kate (2006-03-24). "Food Stories: The Sultan's Coffee Prohibition". Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  50. Allen, Stewart. The Devil's Cup. Random House. ISBN 978-0345441492.
  51. 51.0 51.1 "Who Are the Mormons?". Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
  52. Klatsky, Arthur L. (12 June 2006). "Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes". Archives of Internal Medicine. 166 (11): 1190–1195. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  53. Pereira MA (2006). "Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus". Arch Intern Med. 166 (12): 1311–1316. PMID 16801515. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  54. Bakalar, Nicholas (August 15, 2006). "Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
  55. Mahmud, A. (2001). "Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform". Hypertension. 38 (2): 227–231. PMID 11509481. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  56. The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency
  57. "A coffee can make you forgetful", BBC News, 20 July 2004
  58. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Caffeine in the diet
  59. Dorri, Yaser (2007). "Awaken olfactory receptors of humans and experimental animals by coffee odourants to induce appetite". Med Hypotheses. 69 (3): 508–9. Retrieved Jan/24/2008. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  60. Coffee and Caffeine's Frequently Asked Questions from the alt.drugs.caffeine,, Newsgroups, January 7, 1998
  61. Bunker, M. L. (1979). "Caffeine content of common beverages". J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 74: 28–32. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  62. Mayo Clinic Staff. "Caffeine content of common beverages". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2007-07-22.
  63. FAO (2003). "Coffee". Medium-term prospects for agricultural commodities. Projections to the year 2010. Retrieved 2006-10-16. Global output is expected to reach 7.0 million metric tons (117 million bags) by 2010 compared to 6.7 million metric tons (111 million bags) in 1998–2000
  64. Alex Scofield. "Vietnam: Silent Global Coffee Power". Retrieved 2007-08-01.
  65. Stein, Nicholas (9, 2002). "Crisis in a Coffee Cup". Retrieved 2007-07-23. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  66. "CoffeeGeek - So You Say There's a Coffee Crisis". Retrieved 2006-08-26.
  67. Template:Cite paper
  68. Cost Pass-Through in the U.S. Coffee Industry / ERR-38 (PDF), Economic Research Service, USDA.
  70. "Total Production of Exporting Countries". Retrieved 2007-07-31. Unknown parameter |Publisher= ignored (|publisher= suggested) (help)
  71. "FLO International: Coffee". Retrieved 2007-10-16. Unknown parameter |Publisher= ignored (|publisher= suggested) (help)
  72. Ronchi, L. (2002). The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their Organizations: A Case Study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. University of Sussex. p25–26.
  73. Murray D., Raynolds L. & Taylor P. (2003). One Cup at a time: Poverty Alleviation and Fair Trade coffee in Latin America. Colorado State University, p28
  74. Taylor, Pete Leigh (2002). Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks, Colorado State University, p18.
  75. Murray D., Raynolds L. & Taylor P. (2003). One Cup at a time: Poverty Alleviation and Fair Trade coffee in Latin America. Colorado State University, p8
  76. Murray D., Raynolds L. & Taylor P. (2003). One Cup at a time: Poverty Alleviation and Fair Trade coffee in Latin America. Colorado State University, p10–11
  77. Eberhart, N. (2005). Synthèse de l'étude d'impact du commerce équitable sur les organisations et familles paysannes et leurs territoires dans la filière café des Yungas de Bolivie. Agronomes et Vétérinaires sans frontières, p29.
  78. Balch-Gonzalez, M, (2003). Good Coffee, Better World, The Ethics and Economics of Fair Trade Coffee [2]

External links



Template:Link FA Template:Link FA Template:Link FA Template:Link FA Template:Link FA am:ቡና ar:قهوة ast:Café bn:কফি zh-min-nan:Ka-pi be:Кава be-x-old:Кава bs:Kahva br:Kafe bg:Кафе ca:Cafè cs:Káva cy:Coffi da:Kaffe de:Kaffee et:Kohv el:Καφές eo:Kafo eu:Kafe fa:قهوه fur:Cafè gd:Cofaidh gl:Café hak:Kâ-pî ko:커피 hy:Սուրճ hr:Kava id:Kopi os:Къофи is:Kaffi it:Caffè he:קפה jv:Kopi kn:ಕಾಫಿ ka:ყავა ku:Qehwe la:Cafea lt:Kava jbo:ckafi hu:Kávé mk:Кафе ml:കാപ്പി (പാനീയം) ms:Kopi nl:Koffie nds-nl:Koffie no:Kaffe nn:Kaffi oc:Cafè uz:Qahva qu:Kaphiy se:Gáffe sq:Kafeja scn:Café simple:Coffee sk:Káva sl:Kava sr:Кафа fi:Kahvi sv:Kaffe tl:Kape ta:காப்பி te:కాఫీ th:กาแฟ tpi:Kopi chr:ᎧᏫ uk:Кава ur:کافی vls:Kaffie yi:קאווע zh-yue:咖啡 bat-smg:Kava