Barrett's esophagus risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Amresh Kumar MD [2]


The most potent risk factor in the development of Barrett's Oesophagus is chronic GERD. Other risk factors include age (>older than 50 years), sex (male), race (caucasian), hiatal hernia, elevated body mass index and intra-abdominal distribution of body fat.

Risk factors

The followings are the risk factors for the Barrett's esophagus;

Protective factors


  1. Cook MB, Wild CP, Forman D (2005). "A systematic review and meta-analysis of the sex ratio for Barrett's esophagus, erosive reflux disease, and nonerosive reflux disease". Am J Epidemiol. 162 (11): 1050–61. doi:10.1093/aje/kwi325. PMID 16221805.
  2. Ek WE, Lagergren K, Cook M, Wu AH, Abnet CC, Levine D; et al. (2016). "Polymorphisms in genes in the androgen pathway and risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma". Int J Cancer. 138 (5): 1146–52. doi:10.1002/ijc.29863. PMC 4715576. PMID 26414697.
  3. von Schrenck T (2000). "[Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux and Barrett esophagus]". Zentralbl Chir. 125 (5): 414–23. PMID 10929625.
  4. Minacapelli CD, Bajpai M, Geng X, Cheng CL, Chouthai AA, Souza R; et al. (2017). "Barrett's metaplasia develops from cellular reprograming of esophageal squamous epithelium due to gastroesophageal reflux". Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 312 (6): G615–G622. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00268.2016. PMID 28336546.
  5. Anderson LA, Watson RG, Murphy SJ, Johnston BT, Comber H, Mc Guigan J; et al. (2007). "Risk factors for Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma: results from the FINBAR study". World J Gastroenterol. 13 (10): 1585–94. PMC 4146903. PMID 17461453.
  6. Jacobson BC, Chan AT, Giovannucci EL, Fuchs CS (2009). "Body mass index and Barrett's oesophagus in women". Gut. 58 (11): 1460–6. doi:10.1136/gut.2008.174508. PMC 2763036. PMID 19336423.
  7. Edelstein ZR, Farrow DC, Bronner MP, Rosen SN, Vaughan TL (2007). "Central adiposity and risk of Barrett's esophagus". Gastroenterology. 133 (2): 403–11. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2007.05.026. PMID 17681161.
  8. Kamat P, Wen S, Morris J, Anandasabapathy S (2009). "Exploring the association between elevated body mass index and Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Ann Thorac Surg. 87 (2): 655–62. doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2008.08.003. PMID 19161814.
  9. Spechler SJ, Sharma P, Souza RF, Inadomi JM, Shaheen NJ (2011). "American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on the management of Barrett's esophagus". Gastroenterology. 140 (3): 1084–91. PMID 21376940. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  10. Whiteman DC, Kendall BJ (2016). "Barrett's oesophagus: epidemiology, diagnosis and clinical management". Med J Aust. 205 (7): 317–24. PMID 27681974.
  11. Rokkas T, Pistiolas D, Sechopoulos P, Robotis I, Margantinis G (2007). "Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and esophageal neoplasia: a meta-analysis". Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 5 (12): 1413–7, 1417.e1–2. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2007.08.010. PMID 17997357.
  12. Wang C, Yuan Y, Hunt RH (2009). "Helicobacter pylori infection and Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Am J Gastroenterol. 104 (2): 492–500, quiz 491, 501. doi:10.1038/ajg.2008.37. PMID 19174811.

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