Atrial flutter causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vendhan Ramanujam M.B.B.S [2]

Overview

Atrial flutter is caused by a re-entrant rhythm in either the right or left atrium. Causes of atrial flutter can be grouped into two categories which are intrinsic diseases of the heart and extrinsic diseases that can affect the heart. The most common causes of atrial flutter are coronary artery disease, hypertensive heart disease and valve abnormalities of the heart.

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Aortic regurgitation, aortic stenosis, atrial myxoma, cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, holiday heart syndrome, hypertensive heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome, mitral regurgitation, mitral valve prolapse, mitral valve stenosis, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, neonatal coxsackie myocarditis, pericarditis, rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease, sick sinus syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
Chemical / poisoning Carbon monoxide poisoning
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Amphetamines, cyclophosphamide, disopyramide, febuxostat, flecainide, Ixabepilone, lacosamide, lithium, orlistat, procainamide, propafenone, quinidine, type Ia antiarrhythmic agents, type Ic antiarrhythmic agents, type III antiarrhythmic agents
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, thyrotoxicosis
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis
Genetic Myotonic dystrophy
Hematologic Nonimmune hydrops fetalis
Iatrogenic Cardiac surgery, cardiac transplantation, heart bypass surgery, incomplete ablation procedures, open heart surgery, temporary cardiac pacing
Infectious Disease Amoebiasis, neonatal coxsackie myocarditis, rheumatic fever
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Myotonic dystrophy
Neurologic Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Nutritional / Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Atrial myxoma, lung cancer
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity Alcohol, caffeine, cocaine, digitalis toxicity
Psychiatric Anxiety
Pulmonary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, hypoxia, lung cancer, obstructive sleep apnea, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism
Renal / Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, sarcoidosis, spondyloarthritis
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Stress

Causes in Alphabetical Order

References

  1. Gutierrez SD, Earing MG, Singh AK, Tweddell JS, Bartz PJ (2012). "Atrial Tachyarrhythmias and the Cox-maze Procedure in Congenital Heart Disease". Congenit Heart Dis. doi:10.1111/chd.12031. PMID 23280242. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Granada, J.; Uribe, W.; Chyou, PH.; Maassen, K.; Vierkant, R.; Smith, PN.; Hayes, J.; Eaker, E.; Vidaillet, H. (2000). "Incidence and predictors of atrial flutter in the general population". J Am Coll Cardiol. 36 (7): 2242–6. PMID 11127467. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Murali, A.; Balu, K.; Paari, V.; Rajendiran, G. (2011). "Atrial flutter and pericarditis--a rare complication of right lobe amoebic liver abscess". Med J Malaysia. 66 (5): 499–500. PMID 22390111. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Fukamizu S, Sakurada H, Hayashi T; et al. (2012). "Macroreentrant Atrial Tachycardia in Patients without Previous Atrial Surgery or Catheter Ablation: Clinical and Electrophysiological Characteristics of Scar-Related Left Atrial Anterior Wall Reentry". J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. doi:10.1111/jce.12059. PMID 23279349. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Nevzorov, R.; Ben-Gal, T.; Strasberg, B.; Haim, M. (2012). "Atrial flutter in a post-transplant recipient". Isr Med Assoc J. 14 (7): 448–9. PMID 22953623. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. FRIEDBERG, CK.; DONOSO, E. (1960). "Arrhythmias and conduction disturbances due to digitalis". Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2: 408–31. PMID 13825021. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. JULIAN DG, VALENTINE PA, MILLER GG (1964). "DISTURBANCES OF RATE, RHYTHM AND CONDUCTION IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 100 CONSECUTIVE UNSELECTED PATIENTS WITH THE AID OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC MONITORING". Am J Med. 37: 915–27. PMID 14246092.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Namboodiri N, Stiles MK, Young GD, Sanders P (2012). "Electrophysiological features of atrial flutter in cardiac sarcoidosis: a report of two cases". Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J. 12 (6): 284–9. PMC 3513242. PMID 23233762. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Varma, N.; Helms, R.; Benson, DW.; Sanagala, T. (2011). "Congenital sick sinus syndrome with atrial inexcitability and coronary sinus flutter". Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 4 (5): e52–8. doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.111.964213. PMID 22010118. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Tolat, A.; Krishnan, S.; Lippman, N.; Dell'Orfano, J.; Berns, E. (2010). "Advanced heart block and atrial flutter in a patient with HLA B27 spondyloarthropathy". Europace. 12 (6): 903–4. doi:10.1093/europace/euq008. PMID 20118489. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

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