Anaplastic large cell lymphoma risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sowminya Arikapudi, M.B,B.S. [2], Kamal Akbar, M.D.[3]


There are no established risk factors for anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

Risk Factors

  • There are no real established risk factors for anaplastic large cell lymphoma, but the following are some known predisposing factors:[1][2]
    • Male predominance
    • 2;5 translocation in the sub-types of Anaplastic large cell lymphoma
    • Textured breast implants (also know as breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma)[3][4][5][6]


  1. Mereu E, Pellegrino E, Scarfò I, Inghirami G, Piva R (2017). "The heterogeneous landscape of ALK negative ALCL". Oncotarget. 8 (11): 18525–18536. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.14503. PMC 5392347. PMID 28061468.
  2. Cao S, Nambudiri VE (2017). "Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Cutaneous Malignancies". Cancers (Basel). 9 (9). doi:10.3390/cancers9090123. PMC 5615338. PMID 28895885.
  3. Clemens MW, Nava MB, Rocco N, Miranda RN (2017). "Understanding rare adverse sequelae of breast implants: anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, late seromas, and double capsules". Gland Surg. 6 (2): 169–184. doi:10.21037/gs.2016.11.03. PMC 5409903. PMID 28497021.
  4. Clemens MW, Medeiros LJ, Butler CE, Hunt KK, Fanale MA, Horwitz S; et al. (2016). "Complete Surgical Excision Is Essential for the Management of Patients With Breast Implant-Associated Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma". J Clin Oncol. 34 (2): 160–8. doi:10.1200/JCO.2015.63.3412. PMC 4872006. PMID 26628470.
  5. Kricheldorff J, Fallenberg EM, Solbach C, Gerber-Schäfer C, Rancsó C, Fritschen UV (2018). "Breast Implant-Associated Lymphoma". Dtsch Arztebl Int. 115 (38): 628–635. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2018.0628. PMC 6218708. PMID 30373708.
  6. Di Napoli A, Pepe G, Giarnieri E, Cippitelli C, Bonifacino A, Mattei M; et al. (2017). "Cytological diagnostic features of late breast implant seromas: From reactive to anaplastic large cell lymphoma". PLoS One. 12 (7): e0181097. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181097. PMC 5513491. PMID 28715445.

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