Amnesia pathophysiology

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Amnesia Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Amnesia from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings



Echocardiography and Ultrasound



Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Amnesia pathophysiology On the Web

Most recent articles

cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Amnesia pathophysiology

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Amnesia pathophysiology

CDC on Amnesia pathophysiology

Amnesia pathophysiology in the news

Blogs on Amnesia pathophysiology

Directions to Hospitals Treating Amnesia

Risk calculators and risk factors for Amnesia pathophysiology

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zehra Malik, M.B.B.S[2]


Memory is the stored information in the hippocampal region of the brain. depending on the duration, memory is divided into short term and long term.



Memory is the stored information in the hippocampal region of the brain. According to Richard Semon (1904), experiences cause some structural and functional changes in the neurons and these changes are referred to as engram and they form memory of that experience. Reactivation of these neurons occur when patient tries to recall those memories.[1] Memory is divided into groups depending on the duration:


Types of Amnesia Pathogenesis
Dissociative Amnesia Psychological origin.
Transient global amnesia Precipitated by brain ischemia, migraine, epileptic seizure, venous congestion, psychological trauma.[4]
Post-traumatic Amnesia Amnesia that follows head trauma could be temporary or permanent.[5]
Infantile Amnesia Influenced by cultural norms and sexual repression.[6]
Drug-Induced Amnesia Benzodiazepine are the most common group of drugs that can cause drug-induced amnesia, especially if used with alcohol.[7]
Neurologically Derived Amnesia Brain regions involved are the hippocampus and the medial temporal lobes.[8]
Amnesia in Korsakoff’s Syndrome Caused by thiamine deficiency due to prolonged alcohol use or severe malnutrition. Deficiency of thiamine damages medial thalamus, mammillary bodies and causes cerebral atrophy due to lack of pyruvate decarboxylation.[9]
Epileptic Amnesia Rare, episodic amnesia seen in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.[10]
Lacunar amnesia Occurs due to brain damage. These patients have a gap in memory.[11]


Gross Pathology

On gross pathology, generalized cortical atrophy, more pronounced in hippocampus and medial temporal lobe is seen in patients with Alzheimer's disease.[14]

Microscopic Pathology


  1. Semon R. (1904). Die mneme [The mneme]. Edited by W. Engelmann. Leipzig
  2. Camina E, Güell F (2017). "The Neuroanatomical, Neurophysiological and Psychological Basis of Memory: Current Models and Their Origins". Front Pharmacol. 8: 438. doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00438. PMC 5491610. PMID 28713278.
  3. Bisaz R, Travaglia A, Alberini CM (2014). "The neurobiological bases of memory formation: from physiological conditions to psychopathology". Psychopathology. 47 (6): 347–56. doi:10.1159/000363702. PMC 4246028. PMID 25301080.
  4. Profice P, Rizzello V, Pennestrì F, Pilato F, Della Marca G, Sestito A; et al. (2008). "Transient global amnesia during transoesophageal echocardiogram". Neurol Sci. 29 (6): 477–9. doi:10.1007/s10072-008-1034-y. PMID 19031042.
  5. Leclerc S, Lassonde M, Delaney JS, Lacroix VJ, Johnston KM (2001). "Recommendations for grading of concussion in athletes". Sports Med. 31 (8): 629–36. doi:10.2165/00007256-200131080-00007. PMID 11475324.
  6. Wang Q (2003). "Infantile amnesia reconsidered: a cross-cultural analysis". Memory. 11 (1): 65–80. doi:10.1080/741938173. PMID 12653489.
  7. Sadock, Benjamin J., and Virginia A. Sadock. Kaplan & Sadock's concise textbook of clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008. Print
  8. Allen RJ (2018). "Classic and recent advances in understanding amnesia". F1000Res. 7: 331. doi:10.12688/f1000research.13737.1. PMC 5861508. PMID 29623196.
  9. Kolb, Bryan, and Ian Q. Whishaw. Fundamentals of human neuropsychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishers, 2003. Print.
  10. Walsh RD, Wharen RE, Tatum WO (2011). "Complex transient epileptic amnesia". Epilepsy Behav. 20 (2): 410–3. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2010.12.026. PMID 21262589.
  11. Benezech M, Leyssenne JP (1978). "[Lacunar amnesia and criminal behaviour : realities and medico-legal consequences]". Ann Med Psychol (Paris). 136 (6–8): 918–29. PMID 747264.
  12. Bekris LM, Yu CE, Bird TD, Tsuang DW (2010). "Genetics of Alzheimer disease". J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 23 (4): 213–27. doi:10.1177/0891988710383571. PMC 3044597. PMID 21045163.
  13. Pavlopoulos E, Jones S, Kosmidis S, Close M, Kim C, Kovalerchik O; et al. (2013). "Molecular mechanism for age-related memory loss: the histone-binding protein RbAp48". Sci Transl Med. 5 (200): 200ra115. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3006373. PMC 4940031. PMID 23986399.
  14. 14.0 14.1 DeTure MA, Dickson DW (2019). "The neuropathological diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease". Mol Neurodegener. 14 (1): 32. doi:10.1186/s13024-019-0333-5. PMC 6679484 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 31375134.
  15. Sullivan EV, Pfefferbaum A (2009). "Neuroimaging of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome". Alcohol Alcohol. 44 (2): 155–65. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agn103. PMC 2724861. PMID 19066199.

Template:WH Template:WS