Alcohol withdrawal pathophysiology

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Shakiba Hassanzadeh, MD[2] Aditya Govindavarjhulla, M.B.B.S. [3]

Overview

Under normal conditions in the brain, there is a balance between excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate and inhibitory neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Chronic alcohol intake and acute discontinuation of alcohol intake affect the balance of the neurotransmitters and cause many of the symptoms observed in alcohol withdrawal.

Pathophysiology

Under normal conditions in the brain, there is a balance between excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate and inhibitory neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).[1]

Chronic alcohol intake and acute discontinuation of alcohol intake affect the balance of the neurotransmitters and cause many of the symptoms observed in alcohol withdrawal.[2] [3][4][1]

Acute Alcohol Consumption

Chronic Alcohol Consumption

Alcohol Withdrawal in Chronic Alcohol Consumption

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Saitz R (1998). "Introduction to alcohol withdrawal". Alcohol Health Res World. 22 (1): 5–12. PMC 6761824 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 15706727.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Mirijello A, D'Angelo C, Ferrulli A, Vassallo G, Antonelli M, Caputo F; et al. (2015). "Identification and management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome". Drugs. 75 (4): 353–65. doi:10.1007/s40265-015-0358-1. PMC 4978420. PMID 25666543.
  3. Schmidt KJ, Doshi MR, Holzhausen JM, Natavio A, Cadiz M, Winegardner JE (2016). "Treatment of Severe Alcohol Withdrawal". Ann Pharmacother. 50 (5): 389–401. doi:10.1177/1060028016629161. PMID 26861990.
  4. Wolf C, Curry A, Nacht J, Simpson SA (2020). "Management of Alcohol Withdrawal in the Emergency Department: Current Perspectives". Open Access Emerg Med. 12: 53–65. doi:10.2147/OAEM.S235288. PMC 7093658 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 32256131 Check |pmid= value (help).
  5. 5.0 5.1 Goodman, Louis (2011). Goodman & Gilman's pharmacological basis of therapeutics. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-162442-8. OCLC 498979404.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Nelson, Lewis (2011). Goldfrank's toxicologic emergencies. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 978-0-07-160594-6. OCLC 470694511.
  7. Kosten TR, O'Connor PG (2003). "Management of drug and alcohol withdrawal". N Engl J Med. 348 (18): 1786–95. doi:10.1056/NEJMra020617. PMID 12724485.
  8. Hall W, Zador D (1997). "The alcohol withdrawal syndrome". Lancet. 349 (9069): 1897–900. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(97)04572-8. PMID 9217770.
  9. McKeon A, Frye MA, Delanty N (2008). "The alcohol withdrawal syndrome". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 79 (8): 854–62. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2007.128322. PMID 17986499.
  10. Lejoyeux M, Solomon J, Adès J (1998). "Benzodiazepine treatment for alcohol-dependent patients". Alcohol Alcohol. 33 (6): 563–75. doi:10.1093/alcalc/33.6.563. PMID 9872344.
  11. Reoux JP, Saxon AJ, Malte CA, Baer JS, Sloan KL (2001). "Divalproex sodium in alcohol withdrawal: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial". Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 25 (9): 1324–9. PMID 11584152.