Acute liver failure risk factors
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The risk factors in the development of acute liver failure can be categorized into viral, drugs and toxins, vascular, metabolic and systemic illnesses. Common risk factors of acute liver failure include acetaminophen toxicity, viral hepatitis (most commonly hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis E), alcoholic hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, sepsis, heart failure, renal failure, immunocompromised state, older age and malnourishment. Acetaminophen toxicity is the most common risk factor of acute liver failure in the developed world and viral hepatitis (most commonly hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis E) is most common in the developing world.
- Drug-related hepatotoxicity and idiosyncratic drug reactions are the most common risk factor in the developed world. The most common drug causing hepatotoxicity is acetaminophen.
- Viral hepatitis is the most common risk factor of acute liver failure in the developing world.
- Old age
- Vascular diseases
- Autoimmune disease
- Metabolic diseases
- Long-term alcohol consumption
- Immunocompromised state
- Other systemic diseases
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