Acute liver failure historical perspective

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Husnain Shaukat, M.D [2]

Overview

The association of hepatic and mental disturbance dates back to Hippocrates. In the sixteenth century, Ballonius was the first to describe hepatic coma. In 1860, Frerichs described the terminal mental changes in patients with cirrhosis and yellow atrophy of the liver. In 1970, Trey and Davidson introduced the term fulminant hepatic failure. Later it was suggested that the term fulminant should be confined to patients who develop jaundice to encephalopathy within 2 weeks. Terms subfulminant hepatic failure and late-onset hepatic failure were coined for onset between 2 weeks to 3 months and for 8 weeks to 24 weeks respectively. The term of acute liver failure was proposed by King's college group.

Historical Perspective

  • The hepatic and mental disturbance association dates back to Hippocrates ( about 460 – 375 B.C.).[1][2]
  • In the sixteenth century, Ballonius was the first to describe hepatic coma.
  • In 1660, Franciscus Rubeus and in 1725, Jacobus Vercellonius described liver failure further.
  • Wickham Legg wrote a comprehensive review on acute liver atrophy in his book on liver diseases.
  • In 1860, Frerichs described the terminal mental changes in patients with cirrhosis and yellow atrophy of the liver.
  • The concept of inflammatory process was first described by Bright.[1]
  • In 1970, Trey and Davidson introduced the term fulminant hepatic failure.
  • Horaczek's monograph contained several entities which he called bilious dyscrasia's. The more severe forms corresponds closely with hepatic coma and anatomically with acute yellow atrophy.
  • Later it was suggested that the term fulminant should be confined to patients who develop jaundice to encephalopathy within 2 weeks. Terms subfulminant hepatic failure and late onset hepatic failure were coined for onset between 2 weeks to 3 months and for 8 weeks to 24 weeks respectively.[3][4]
  • The term of acute liver failure was proposed by Kings college group.[5]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kadam PD, Chuan HH (2016). "Erratum to: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament". Int Urogynecol J. 27 (3): 505. doi:10.1007/s00192-016-2952-5. PMID 26811110.
  2. Trey C, Davidson CS (1970). "The management of fulminant hepatic failure". Progress in liver diseases. 3: 282–98. PMID 4908702.
  3. Bernuau J, Goudeau A, Poynard T; et al. (1986). "Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in fulminant hepatitis B". Hepatology. 6 (4): 648–51. PMID 3732998.
  4. Gimson AE, O'Grady J, Ede RJ, Portmann B, Williams R (1986). "Late onset hepatic failure: clinical, serological and histological features". Hepatology. 6 (2): 288–94. PMID 3082735.
  5. Sass DA, Shakil AO (2005). "Fulminant hepatic failure". Liver Transpl. 11 (6): 594–605. doi:10.1002/lt.20435. PMID 15915484.



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