Acarbose

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Acarbose
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Gloria Picoy [2]

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Overview

Acarbose is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor that is FDA approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Common adverse reactions include abdominal pain, diarrhea, flatulence.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Acarbose is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  • Dosage:
  • Initial dosage: 25 mg given orally three times daily at the start (with the first bite) of each main meal.
  • Maintenance dosage: Once a 25 mg t.i.d. dosage regimen is reached, dosage of acarbose should be adjusted at 4–8 week intervals based on one-hour postprandial glucose or glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and on tolerance.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Acarbose in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Safety and efficacy not established in pediatric patients

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Acarbose in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Acarbose in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

Warnings

Macrovascular Outcomes

There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with acarbose or any other anti-diabetic drug.

Hypoglycemia

Because of its mechanism of action, acarbose when administered alone should not cause hypoglycemia in the fasted or postprandial state. Sulfonylurea agents or insulin may cause hypoglycemia. Because acarbose given in combination with a sulfonylurea or insulin will cause a further lowering of blood glucose, it may increase the potential for hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving metformin alone under usual circumstances of use, and no increased incidence of hypoglycemia was observed in patients when acarbose was added to metformin therapy. Oral glucose (dextrose), whose absorption is not inhibited by acarbose, should be used instead of sucrose (cane sugar) in the treatment of mild to moderate hypoglycemia. Sucrose, whose hydrolysis to glucose and fructose is inhibited by acarbose, is unsuitable for the rapid correction of hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia may require the use of either intravenous glucose infusion or glucagon injection.

Elevated Serum Transaminase Levels

In long-term studies (up to 12 months, and including acarbose doses up to 300 mg t.i.d.) conducted in the United States, treatment-emergent elevations of serum transaminases (AST and/or ALT) above the upper limit of normal (ULN), greater than 1.8 times the ULN, and greater than 3 times the ULN occurred in 14%, 6%, and 3%, respectively, of acarbose-treated patients as compared to 7%, 2%, and 1%, respectively, of placebo-treated patients. Although these differences between treatments were statistically significant, these elevations were asymptomatic, reversible, more common in females, and, in general, were not associated with other evidence of liver dysfunction. In addition, these serum transaminase elevations appeared to be dose related. In US studies including acarbose doses up to the maximum approved dose of 100 mg t.i.d., treatment-emergent elevations of AST and/or ALT at any level of severity were similar between acarbose-treated patients and placebo-treated patients (p ≥ 0.496).

In approximately 3 million patient-years of international postmarketing experience with acarbose, 62 cases of serum transaminase elevations > 500 IU/L (29 of which were associated with jaundice) have been reported. Forty-one of these 62 patients received treatment with 100 mg t.i.d. or greater and 33 of 45 patients for whom weight was reported weighed < 60 kg. In the 59 cases where follow-up was recorded, hepatic abnormalities improved or resolved upon discontinuation of acarbose in 55 and were unchanged in two. Cases of fulminant hepatitis with fatal outcome have been reported; the relationship to acarbose is unclear.

Loss of Control of Blood Glucose

When diabetic patients are exposed to stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, a temporary loss of control of blood glucose may occur. At such times, temporary insulin therapy may be necessary.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Digestive Tract

Gastrointestinal symptoms are the most common reactions to acarbose. In U.S. placebo-controlled trials, the incidences of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and flatulence were 19%, 31%, and 74% respectively in 1255 patients treated with acarbose 50–300 mg t.i.d., whereas the corresponding incidences were 9%, 12%, and 29% in 999 placebo-treated patients.

In a one-year safety study, during which patients kept diaries of gastrointestinal symptoms, abdominal pain and diarrhea tended to return to pretreatment levels over time, and the frequency and intensity of flatulence tended to abate with time. The increased gastrointestinal tract symptoms in patients treated with acarbose are a manifestation of the mechanism of action of acarbose and are related to the presence of undigested carbohydrate in the lower GI tract.

If the prescribed diet is not observed, the intestinal side effects may be intensified. If strongly distressing symptoms develop in spite of adherence to the diabetic diet prescribed, the doctor must be consulted and the dose temporarily or permanently reduced.

Elevated Serum Transaminase Levels

Other Abnormal Laboratory Findings: Small reductions in hematocrit occurred more often in acarbose-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients but were not associated with reductions in hemoglobin. Low serum calcium and low plasma vitamin B6 levels were associated with acarbose therapy but are thought to be either spurious or of no clinical significance.

Postmarketing Experience

Additional adverse events reported from worldwide postmarketing experience include fulminant hepatitis with fatal outcome, hypersensitive skin reactions (for example rash, erythema, exanthema and uticaria), edema, ileus/subileus, jaundice and/or hepatitis and associated liver damage, thrombocytopenia, and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis.

Pneumatosis Cystoides Intestinalis

There have been rare postmarketing reports of pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis associated with the use of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, including acarbose. Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis may present with symptoms of diarrhea, mucus discharge, rectal bleeding, and constipation. Complications may include pneumoperitoneum, volvulus, intestinal obstruction, intussusception, intestinal hemorrhage, and intestinal perforation. If pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is suspected, discontinue acarbose and perform the appropriate diagnostic imaging.

Drug Interactions

Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of blood glucose control. These drugs include the thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel-blocking drugs, and isoniazid. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving acarbose, the patient should be closely observed for loss of blood glucose control. When such drugs are withdrawn from patients receiving acarbose in combination with sulfonylureas or insulin, patients should be observed closely for any evidence of hypoglycemia.

Patients Receiving Sulfonylureas or Insulin: Sulfonylurea agents or insulin may cause hypoglycemia. Acarbose given in combination with a sulfonylurea or insulin may cause a further lowering of blood glucose and may increase the potential for hypoglycemia. If hypoglycemia occurs, appropriate adjustments in the dosage of these agents should be made. Very rarely, individual cases of hypoglycemic shock have been reported in patients receiving acarbose therapy in combination with sulfonylureas and/or insulin.

Intestinal adsorbents (for example, charcoal) and digestive enzyme preparations containing carbohydrate-splitting enzymes (for example, amylase, pancreatin) may reduce the effect of acarbose and should not be taken concomitantly.

Acarbosehas been shown to change the bioavailability of digoxin when they are coadministered, which may require digoxin dose adjustment.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): B The safety of acarbose in pregnant women has not been established. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at doses up to 480 mg/kg (corresponding to 9 times the exposure in humans, based on drug blood levels) and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to acarbose. In rabbits, reduced maternal body weight gain, probably the result of the pharmacodynamic activity of high doses of acarbose in the intestines, may have been responsible for a slight increase in the number of embryonic losses. However, rabbits given 160 mg/kg acarbose (corresponding to 10 times the dose in man, based on body surface area) showed no evidence of embryotoxicity and there was no evidence of teratogenicity at a dose 32 times the dose in man (based on body surface area). There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies of acarbose in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of the human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Because current information strongly suggests that abnormal blood glucose levels during pregnancy are associated with a higher incidence of congenital anomalies as well as increased neonatal morbidity and mortality, most experts recommend that insulin be used during pregnancy to maintain blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible.
Pregnancy Category (AUS): There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Acarbose in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Acarbose during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

A small amount of radioactivity has been found in the milk of lactating rats after administration of radiolabeled acarbose. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, acarbose should not be administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Acarbose in pediatric settings.

Geriatic Use

Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of acarbose in the United States, 27% were 65 and over, while 4% were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety and effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. The mean steady-state area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentrations of acarbose were approximately 1.5 times higher in elderly compared to young volunteers; however, these differences were not statistically significant.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Acarbose with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Acarbose with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

Plasma concentrations of acarbose in renally impaired volunteers were proportionally increased relative to the degree of renal dysfunction. Long-term clinical trials in diabetic patients with significant renal dysfunction (serum creatinine > 2.0 mg/dL) have not been conducted. Therefore, treatment of these patients with acarbose is not recommended.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Acarbose in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

Fertility studies conducted in rats after oral administration produced no untoward effect on fertility or on the overall capability to reproduce.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Acarbose in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

Oral

Monitoring

Therapeutic response to acarbose should be monitored by periodic blood glucose tests. Measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin levels is recommended for the monitoring of long-term glycemic control.

Acarbose, particularly at doses in excess of 50 mg t.i.d., may give rise to elevations of serum transaminases and, in rare instances, hyperbilirubinemia. It is recommended that serum transaminase levels be checked every 3 months during the first year of treatment with acarbose and periodically thereafter. If elevated transaminases are observed, a reduction in dosage or withdrawal of therapy may be indicated, particularly if the elevations persist.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding the compatibility of Acarbose and IV administrations.

Overdosage

Unlike sulfonylureas or insulin, an overdose of acarbose will not result in hypoglycemia. An overdose may result in transient increases in flatulence, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort which shortly subside. In cases of overdosage the patient should not be given drinks or meals containing carbohydrates (polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and disaccharides) for the next 4–6 hours.

Pharmacology

Acarbosse structural formula.png
Acarbose
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-5-{[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-5- {[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl- 5-{[(1S,4R,5S,6S)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-3- (hydroxymethyl)cyclohex-2-en-1-yl]amino} tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]oxy}-3,4-dihydroxy- 6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]oxy}- 6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2,3,4-triol
Identifiers
CAS number 56180-94-0
ATC code A10BF01
PubChem 444254
DrugBank DB00284
Chemical data
Formula C25H43NO18 
Mol. mass 645.605 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Extremely low
Metabolism Gastrointestinal tract
Half life 2 hours
Excretion Renal (less than 2%)
Therapeutic considerations
Licence data

US

Pregnancy cat.

B3(AU) B(US)

Legal status

POM(UK) -only(US)

Routes Oral

Mechanism of Action

In contrast to sulfonylureas, acarbose does not enhance insulin secretion. The antihyperglycemic action of acarbose results from a competitive, reversible inhibition of pancreatic alpha-amylase and membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucoside hydrolase enzymes. Pancreatic alpha-amylase hydrolyzes complex starches to oligosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine, while the membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidases hydrolyze oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the brush border of the small intestine. In diabetic patients, this enzyme inhibition results in a delayed glucose absorption and a lowering of postprandial hyperglycemia.

Because its mechanism of action is different, the effect of acarbose to enhance glycemic control is additive to that of sulfonylureas, insulin or metformin when used in combination. In addition, acarbose diminishes the insulinotropic and weight-increasing effects of sulfonylureas.

Acarbose has no inhibitory activity against lactase and consequently would not be expected to induce lactose intolerance.

Structure

Acarbosse structural formula.png

Pharmacodynamics

Acarbose is a complex oligosaccharide that delays the digestion of ingested carbohydrates, thereby resulting in a smaller rise in blood glucose concentration following meals. As a consequence of plasma glucose reduction, acarbose reduces levels of glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Systemic non-enzymatic protein glycosylation, as reflected by levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, is a function of average blood glucose concentration over time.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

In a study of 6 healthy men, less than 2% of an oral dose of acarbose was absorbed as active drug, while approximately 35% of total radioactivity from a 14C-labeled oral dose was absorbed. An average of 51% of an oral dose was excreted in the feces as unabsorbed drug-related radioactivity within 96 hours of ingestion. Because acarbose acts locally within the gastrointestinal tract, this low systemic bioavailability of parent compound is therapeutically desired. Following oral dosing of healthy volunteers with 14C-labeled acarbose, peak plasma concentrations of radioactivity were attained 14–24 hours after dosing, while peak plasma concentrations of active drug were attained at approximately 1 hour. The delayed absorption of acarbose-related radioactivity reflects the absorption of metabolites that may be formed by either intestinal bacteria or intestinal enzymatic hydrolysis.

Metabolism

Acarbose is metabolized exclusively within the gastrointestinal tract, principally by intestinal bacteria, but also by digestive enzymes. A fraction of these metabolites (approximately 34% of the dose) was absorbed and subsequently excreted in the urine. At least 13 metabolites have been separated chromatographically from urine specimens. The major metabolites have been identified as 4-methylpyrogallol derivatives (that is, sulfate, methyl, and glucuronide conjugates). One metabolite (formed by cleavage of a glucose molecule from acarbose) also has alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. This metabolite, together with the parent compound, recovered from the urine, accounts for less than 2% of the total administered dose.

Excretion

The fraction of acarbose that is absorbed as intact drug is almost completely excreted by the kidneys. When acarbose was given intravenously, 89% of the dose was recovered in the urine as active drug within 48 hours. In contrast, less than 2% of an oral dose was recovered in the urine as active (that is, parent compound and active metabolite) drug. This is consistent with the low bioavailability of the parent drug. The plasma elimination half-life of acarbose activity is approximately 2 hours in healthy volunteers. Consequently, drug accumulation does not occur with three times a day (t.i.d.) oral dosing.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis

Eight carcinogenicity studies were conducted with acarbose. Six studies were performed in rats (two strains, Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) and two studies were performed in hamsters.

In the first rat study, Sprague-Dawley rats received acarbose in feed at high doses (up to approximately 500 mg/kg body weight) for 104 weeks. Acarbose treatment resulted in a significant increase in the incidence of renal tumors (adenomas and adenocarcinomas) and benign Leydig cell tumors. This study was repeated with a similar outcome. Further studies were performed to separate direct carcinogenic effects of acarbose from indirect effects resulting from the carbohydrate malnutrition induced by the large doses of acarbose employed in the studies. In one study using Sprague-Dawley rats, acarbose was mixed with feed but carbohydrate deprivation was prevented by the addition of glucose to the diet. In a 26-month study of Sprague-Dawley rats, acarbose was administered by daily postprandial gavage so as to avoid the pharmacologic effects of the drug. In both of these studies, the increased incidence of renal tumors found in the original studies did not occur. Acarbose was also given in food and by postprandial gavage in two separate studies in Wistar rats. No increased incidence of renal tumors was found in either of these Wistar rat studies. In two feeding studies of hamsters, with and without glucose supplementation, there was also no evidence of carcinogenicity.

Acarbose did not induce any DNA damage in vitro in the CHO chromosomal aberration assay, bacterial mutagenesis (Ames) assay, or a DNA binding assay. In vivo, no DNA damage was detected in the dominant lethal test in male mice, or the mouse micronucleus test.

Clinical Studies

Clinical Experience from Dose Finding Studies in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients on Dietary Treatment Only

Results from six controlled, fixed-dose, monotherapy studies of acarbose in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, involving 769 acarbose-treated patients, were combined and a weighted average of the difference from placebo in the mean change from baseline in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was calculated for each dose level as presented below:

Acarbose Mean Placebo-Subtracted Change in HbA1c in Fixed-Dose Monotherapy Studies.png

Results from these six fixed-dose, monotherapy studies were also combined to derive a weighted average of the difference from placebo in mean change from baseline for one-hour postprandial plasma glucose levels as shown in the following figure:

Acarbose Mean Placebo-Subtracted Change in HbA1c in Fixed-Dose Monotherapy Studies results.png

Clinical Experience in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients on Monotherapy, or in Combination with Sulfonylureas, Metformin or Insulin

Acarbose was studied as monotherapy and as combination therapy to sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin treatment. The treatment effects on HbA1c levels and one-hour postprandial glucose levels are summarized for four placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized studies conducted in the United States in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. The placebo-subtracted treatment differences, which are summarized below, were statistically significant for both variables in all of these studies.

Study 1 (n=109) involved patients on background treatment with diet only. The mean effect of the addition of acarbose to diet therapy was a change in HbA1c of -0.78%, and an improvement of one-hour postprandial glucose of -74.4 mg/dL.

In Study 2 (n=137), the mean effect of the addition of acarbose to maximum sulfonylurea therapy was a change in HbA1c of -0.54%, and an improvement of one-hour postprandial glucose of -33.5 mg/dL.

In Study 3 (n=147), the mean effect of the addition of acarbose to maximum metformin therapy was a change in HbA1c of -0.65%, and an improvement of one-hour postprandial glucose of -34.3 mg/dL.

Study 4 (n=145) demonstrated that acarbose added to patients on background treatment with insulin resulted in a mean change in HbA1c of -0.69%, and an improvement of one-hour postprandial glucose of -36.0 mg/dL.

A one year study of acarbose as monotherapy or in combination with sulfonylurea, metformin or insulin treatment was conducted in Canada in which 316 patients were included in the primary efficacy analysis (Figure 2). In the diet, sulfonylurea and metformin groups, the mean decrease in HbA1c produced by the addition of acarbose was statistically significant at six months, and this effect was persistent at one year. In the acarbose-treated patients on insulin, there was a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c at six months, and a trend for a reduction at one year.

Acarbose Clinical Experience in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients on Monotherapy, or in Combination with Sulfonylureas, Metformin or Insulin.png

How Supplied

Acarbose is available as 25 mg, 50 mg or 100 mg round, unscored tablets.

Storage

Do not store above 25°C (77°F).

Images

Drug Images

Acarbose NDC 00540140.jpg

Drug Name: Acarbose
Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]
Imprint: 54;311
Dosage: 25 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 6
Score: 1
NDC:00540140

Drug Label Author: Roxane Laboratories, Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Acarbose NDC 00540141.jpg

Drug Name: Acarbose
Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]
Imprint: 54;737
Dosage: 50 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 7
Score: 1
NDC:00540141

Drug Label Author: Roxane Laboratories, Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Acarbose NDC 00540142.jpg

Drug Name: Acarbose
Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]
Imprint: 54;251
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 9
Score: 1
NDC:00540142

Drug Label Author: Roxane Laboratories, Inc

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Acarbose NDC 01151150.jpg

Drug Name: Acarbose
Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]
Imprint: E71
Dosage: 25 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 6
Score: 1
NDC:01151150

Drug Label Author: Global Pharmaceuticals, Division of Impax Laboratories, Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Acarbose NDC 01151151.jpg

Drug Name: Acarbose
Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]
Imprint: E72
Dosage: 50 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 7
Score: 1
NDC:01151151

Drug Label Author: Global Pharmaceuticals, Division of Impax Laboratories, Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Acarbose NDC 01151152.jpg

Drug Name: Acarbose
Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]
Imprint: E73
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 9
Score: 1
NDC:01151152

Drug Label Author: Global Pharmaceuticals, Division of Impax Laboratories, Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Acarbose NDC 162520523.jpg

Drug Name: Acarbose
Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]
Imprint: AR
Dosage: 25 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 6
Score: 1
NDC:162520523

Drug Label Author: Cobalt Laboratories

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Acarbose NDC 162520524.jpg

Drug Name: Acarbose
Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]
Imprint: AR;50
Dosage: 50 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 7
Score: 1
NDC:162520524

Drug Label Author: Cobalt Laboratories

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Acarbose NDC 162520525.jpg

Drug Name: Acarbose
Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]
Imprint: AR;100
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 9
Score: 1
NDC:162520525

Drug Label Author: Cobalt Laboratories

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Precose NDC 504190861.jpg

Drug Name: Acarbose
Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]
Imprint: PRECOSE;50
Dosage: 50 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 7
Score: 1
NDC:504190861

Drug Label Author: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Precose NDC 504190862.jpg

Drug Name: Acarbose
Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]
Imprint: PRECOSE;100
Dosage: 100 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 9
Score: 1
NDC:504190862

Drug Label Author: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.
Precose NDC 504190863.jpg

Drug Name: Acarbose
Ingredient(s): ACARBOSE[ACARBOSE]
Imprint: PRECOSE;25
Dosage: 25 mg
Color(s): White
Shape: Round
Size (mm): 6
Score: 1
NDC:504190863

Drug Label Author: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.

Package and Label Display Panel

Acarbose 25 mg FDA package label.png
Acarbose 50 mg FDA package label.png
Acarbose 100 mg FDA package label.png
Acarbose 25 mg.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Acarbose 50 mg.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Acarbose 100 mg.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

Patients should be told to take acarbose orally three times a day at the start (with the first bite) of each main meal. It is important that patients continue to adhere to dietary instructions, a regular exercise program, and regular testing of urine and/or blood glucose.

Acarbose itself does not cause hypoglycemia even when administered to patients in the fasted state. Sulfonylurea drugs and insulin, however, can lower blood sugar levels enough to cause symptoms or sometimes life-threatening hypoglycemia. Because acarbose given in combination with a sulfonylurea or insulin will cause a further lowering of blood sugar, it may increase the hypoglycemic potential of these agents. Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving metformin alone under usual circumstances of use, and no increased incidence of hypoglycemia was observed in patients when acarbose was added to metformin therapy. The risk of hypoglycemia, its symptoms and treatment, and conditions that predispose to its development should be well understood by patients and responsible family members. Because acarbose prevents the breakdown of table sugar, patients should have a readily available source of glucose (dextrose, D-glucose) to treat symptoms of low blood sugar when taking acarbose in combination with a sulfonylurea or insulin.

If side effects occur with acarbose, they usually develop during the first few weeks of therapy. They are most commonly mild-to-moderate gastrointestinal effects, such as flatulence, diarrhea, or abdominal discomfort, and generally diminish in frequency and intensity with time.

Precautions with Alcohol

Alcohol-Acarbose interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Acarbose Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "FDA LABEL: ACARBOSE- acarbose tablet".

















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