Abc

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:

Synonyms and Keywords:

Overview

Historical Perspective

[Disease name] was first discovered by [name of scientist], a [nationality + occupation], in [year]/during/following [event].

The association between [important risk factor/cause] and [disease name] was made in/during [year/event].

In [year], [scientist] was the first to discover the association between [risk factor] and the development of [disease name].

In [year], [gene] mutations were first implicated in the pathogenesis of [disease name].

There have been several outbreaks of [disease name], including -----.

In [year], [diagnostic test/therapy] was developed by [scientist] to treat/diagnose [disease name].

Classification

There is no established system for the classification of [disease name].

OR

[Disease name] may be classified according to [classification method] into [number] subtypes/groups: [group1], [group2], [group3], and [group4].

OR

[Disease name] may be classified into [large number > 6] subtypes based on [classification method 1], [classification method 2], and [classification method 3]. [Disease name] may be classified into several subtypes based on [classification method 1], [classification method 2], and [classification method 3].

OR

Based on the duration of symptoms, [disease name] may be classified as either acute or chronic.

OR

If the staging system involves specific and characteristic findings and features: According to the [staging system + reference], there are [number] stages of [malignancy name] based on the [finding1], [finding2], and [finding3]. Each stage is assigned a [letter/number1] and a [letter/number2] that designate the [feature1] and [feature2].

OR

The staging of [malignancy name] is based on the [staging system].

OR

There is no established system for the staging of [malignancy name].

Pathophysiology

The exact pathogenesis of [disease name] is not fully understood.

OR

It is thought that [disease name] is the result of / is mediated by / is produced by / is caused by either [hypothesis 1], [hypothesis 2], or [hypothesis 3].

OR

[Pathogen name] is usually transmitted via the [transmission route] route to the human host.

OR

Following transmission/ingestion, the [pathogen] uses the [entry site] to invade the [cell name] cell.

OR


[Disease or malignancy name] arises from [cell name]s, which are [cell type] cells that are normally involved in [function of cells].

OR

The progression to [disease name] usually involves the [molecular pathway].

OR

The pathophysiology of [disease/malignancy] depends on the histological subtype.

Causes

Disease name] may be caused by [cause1], [cause2], or [cause3].

OR

Common causes of [disease] include [cause1], [cause2], and [cause3].

OR

The most common cause of [disease name] is [cause 1]. Less common causes of [disease name] include [cause 2], [cause 3], and [cause 4].

OR

The cause of [disease name] has not been identified. To review risk factors for the development of [disease name], click here.

Differentiating ((Page name)) from Other Diseases

[Disease name] must be differentiated from other diseases that cause [clinical feature 1], [clinical feature 2], and [clinical feature 3], such as [differential dx1], [differential dx2], and [differential dx3].

OR

[Disease name] must be differentiated from [[differential dx1], [differential dx2], and [differential dx3].

Epidemiology and Demographics

The incidence/prevalence of [disease name] is approximately [number range] per 100,000 individuals worldwide.

OR

In [year], the incidence/prevalence of [disease name] was estimated to be [number range] cases per 100,000 individuals worldwide.

OR

In [year], the incidence of [disease name] is approximately [number range] per 100,000 individuals with a case-fatality rate of [number range]%.


Patients of all age groups may develop [disease name].

OR

The incidence of [disease name] increases with age; the median age at diagnosis is [#] years.

OR

[Disease name] commonly affects individuals younger than/older than [number of years] years of age.

OR

[Chronic disease name] is usually first diagnosed among [age group].

OR

[Acute disease name] commonly affects [age group].


There is no racial predilection to [disease name].

OR

[Disease name] usually affects individuals of the [race 1] race. [Race 2] individuals are less likely to develop [disease name].


[Disease name] affects men and women equally.

OR

[Gender 1] are more commonly affected by [disease name] than [gender 2]. The [gender 1] to [gender 2] ratio is approximately [number > 1] to 1.


The majority of [disease name] cases are reported in [geographical region].

OR

[Disease name] is a common/rare disease that tends to affect [patient population 1] and [patient population 2].

Risk Factors

There are no established risk factors for [disease name].

OR

The most potent risk factor in the development of [disease name] is [risk factor 1]. Other risk factors include [risk factor 2], [risk factor 3], and [risk factor 4].

OR

Common risk factors in the development of [disease name] include [risk factor 1], [risk factor 2], [risk factor 3], and [risk factor 4].

OR

Common risk factors in the development of [disease name] may be occupational, environmental, genetic, and viral.

Screening

There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine screening for [disease/malignancy].

OR

According to the [guideline name], screening for [disease name] is not recommended.

OR

According to the [guideline name], screening for [disease name] by [test 1] is recommended every [duration] among patients with [condition 1], [condition 2], and [condition 3].

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

If left untreated, [#]% of patients with [disease name] may progress to develop [manifestation 1], [manifestation 2], and [manifestation 3].

OR

Common complications of [disease name] include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].

OR

Prognosis is generally excellent/good/poor, and the 1/5/10-year mortality/survival rate of patients with [disease name] is approximately [#]%.

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Study of Choice

The diagnosis of [disease name] is made when at least [number] of the following [number] diagnostic criteria are met: [criterion 1], [criterion 2], [criterion 3], and [criterion 4].

OR

The diagnosis of [disease name] is based on the [criteria name] criteria, which include [criterion 1], [criterion 2], and [criterion 3].

OR

The diagnosis of [disease name] is based on the [definition name] definition, which includes [criterion 1], [criterion 2], and [criterion 3].

OR

There are no established criteria for the diagnosis of [disease name].

History and Symptoms

The majority of patients with [disease name] are asymptomatic.

OR

The hallmark of [disease name] is [finding]. A positive history of [finding 1] and [finding 2] is suggestive of [disease name]. The most common symptoms of [disease name] include [symptom 1], [symptom 2], and [symptom 3]. Common symptoms of [disease] include [symptom 1], [symptom 2], and [symptom 3]. Less common symptoms of [disease name] include [symptom 1], [symptom 2], and [symptom 3].

Physical Examination

Patients with [disease name] usually appear [general appearance]. Physical examination of patients with [disease name] is usually remarkable for [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

OR

Common physical examination findings of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

OR

The presence of [finding(s)] on physical examination is diagnostic of [disease name].

OR

The presence of [finding(s)] on physical examination is highly suggestive of [disease name].

Laboratory Findings

An elevated/reduced concentration of serum/blood/urinary/CSF/other [lab test] is diagnostic of [disease name].

OR

Laboratory findings consistent with the diagnosis of [disease name] include [abnormal test 1], [abnormal test 2], and [abnormal test 3].

OR

[Test] is usually normal among patients with [disease name].

OR

Some patients with [disease name] may have elevated/reduced concentration of [test], which is usually suggestive of [progression/complication].

OR

There are no diagnostic laboratory findings associated with [disease name].

Electrocardiogram

There are no ECG findings associated with [disease name].

OR

An ECG may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an ECG suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

X-ray

There are no x-ray findings associated with [disease name].

OR

An x-ray may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an x-ray suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

OR

There are no x-ray findings associated with [disease name]. However, an x-ray may be helpful in the diagnosis of complications of [disease name], which include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].

Echocardiography or Ultrasound

There are no echocardiography/ultrasound findings associated with [disease name].

OR

Echocardiography/ultrasound may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an echocardiography/ultrasound suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

OR

There are no echocardiography/ultrasound findings associated with [disease name]. However, an echocardiography/ultrasound may be helpful in the diagnosis of complications of [disease name], which include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].

CT scan

There are no CT scan findings associated with [disease name].

OR

[Location] CT scan may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on CT scan suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

OR

There are no CT scan findings associated with [disease name]. However, a CT scan may be helpful in the diagnosis of complications of [disease name], which include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].

MRI

There are no MRI findings associated with [disease name].

OR

[Location] MRI may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on MRI suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

OR

There are no MRI findings associated with [disease name]. However, a MRI may be helpful in the diagnosis of complications of [disease name], which include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].

Other Imaging Findings

There are no other imaging findings associated with [disease name].

OR

[Imaging modality] may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an [imaging modality] suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

Other Diagnostic Studies

There are no other diagnostic studies associated with [disease name].

OR

[Diagnostic study] may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

OR

Other diagnostic studies for [disease name] include [diagnostic study 1], which demonstrates [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3], and [diagnostic study 2], which demonstrates [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

Treatment

Medical Therapy

There is no treatment for [disease name]; the mainstay of therapy is supportive care.

OR

Supportive therapy for [disease name] includes [therapy 1], [therapy 2], and [therapy 3].

OR

The majority of cases of [disease name] are self-limited and require only supportive care.

OR

[Disease name] is a medical emergency and requires prompt treatment.

OR

The mainstay of treatment for [disease name] is [therapy].

OR   The optimal therapy for [malignancy name] depends on the stage at diagnosis.

OR

[Therapy] is recommended among all patients who develop [disease name].

OR

Pharmacologic medical therapy is recommended among patients with [disease subclass 1], [disease subclass 2], and [disease subclass 3].

OR

Pharmacologic medical therapies for [disease name] include (either) [therapy 1], [therapy 2], and/or [therapy 3].

OR

Empiric therapy for [disease name] depends on [disease factor 1] and [disease factor 2].

OR

Patients with [disease subclass 1] are treated with [therapy 1], whereas patients with [disease subclass 2] are treated with [therapy 2].

Surgery

Surgical intervention is not recommended for the management of [disease name].

OR

Surgery is not the first-line treatment option for patients with [disease name]. Surgery is usually reserved for patients with either [indication 1], [indication 2], and [indication 3]

OR

The mainstay of treatment for [disease name] is medical therapy. Surgery is usually reserved for patients with either [indication 1], [indication 2], and/or [indication 3].

OR

The feasibility of surgery depends on the stage of [malignancy] at diagnosis.

OR

Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for [disease or malignancy].

Primary Prevention

There are no established measures for the primary prevention of [disease name].

OR

There are no available vaccines against [disease name].

OR

Effective measures for the primary prevention of [disease name] include [measure1], [measure2], and [measure3].

OR

[Vaccine name] vaccine is recommended for [patient population] to prevent [disease name]. Other primary prevention strategies include [strategy 1], [strategy 2], and [strategy 3].

Secondary Prevention

There are no established measures for the secondary prevention of [disease name].

OR

Effective measures for the secondary prevention of [disease name] include [strategy 1], [strategy 2], and [strategy 3].

References



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