Air embolism echocardiography or ultrasound

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Tansesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), Precordial doppler ultrasound and Transcranial doppler ultrasound may be used to diagnose air embolism.

Ultrasound

  • Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) is the most sensitive imaging modality for air embolism.[1][2]
    • On TEE, air embolism is characterized by detection of air in circulation.
  • Precordial Doppler Ultrasound is the most sensitive noninvasive imaging modality for air embolism.[3][4]
    • Precordial Doppler Ultrasound may demonstrate air in circulation.
  • Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound is also used to detect air embolism.
    • Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound may demonstrate cerebral emboli.

References

  1. R. A. Jaffe, L. C. Siegel, I. Schnittger, J. W. Propst & J. G. Brock-Utne (1995). "Epidural air injection assessed by transesophageal echocardiography". Regional anesthesia. 20 (2): 152–155. PMID 7605763. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. H. Furuya, T. Suzuki, F. Okumura, Y. Kishi & T. Uefuji (1983). "Detection of air embolism by transesophageal echocardiography". Anesthesiology. 58 (2): 124–129. PMID 6401948. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. S. G. Soriano, M. L. McManus, L. J. Sullivan, R. M. Scott & M. A. Rockoff (1994). "Doppler sensor placement during neurosurgical procedures for children in the prone position". Journal of neurosurgical anesthesiology. 6 (3): 153–155. PMID 8081094. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. J. L. Chang, M. S. Albin, L. Bunegin & T. K. Hung (1980). "Analysis and comparison of venous air embolism detection methods". Neurosurgery. 7 (2): 135–141. PMID 7422108. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)



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