Adult T-cell leukemia risk factors
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Common risk factors in the development of adult T-cell leukemia among HTLV carriers are vertical transmission of HTLV infection during labor, male sex, and specific human leukocyte antigens such as HLA-A 26, HLA-B 4002, and HLA-B 4801.
- Common risk factors in the development of adult T-cell leukemia among HTLV carriers include:
- Vertical transmission of HTLV infection during labor
- Male sex
- Specific human leukocyte antigens such as:
- Patients with a Strongyloides stercoralis co-infection
- An elevated soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels (> 500 U/ml)
- An elevated anti-HTLV-1 antibody titer
- An elevated HTLV proviral load level (> 4 copies per 100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells)
- An elevated WBC count (> 9,000/μL)
- An elevated abnormal lymphocyte count
- A decreased level of anti-Tax reactivity
- Iwanaga M, Watanabe T, Yamaguchi K (2012). "Adult T-cell leukemia: a review of epidemiological evidence". Front Microbiol. 3: 322. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00322. PMC 3437524. PMID 22973265.
- Hisada M, Okayama A, Shioiri S, Spiegelman DL, Stuver SO, Mueller NE (November 1998). "Risk factors for adult T-cell leukemia among carriers of human T-lymphotropic virus type I". Blood. 92 (10): 3557–61. PMID 9808547.
- Kondo H, Soda M, Sawada N, Inoue M, Imaizumi Y, Miyazaki Y, Iwanaga M, Tanaka Y, Mizokami M, Tsugane S (September 2016). "Smoking is a risk factor for development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in Japanese human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 carriers". Cancer Causes Control. 27 (9): 1059–66. doi:10.1007/s10552-016-0784-8. PMID 27412633.