Acute myeloid leukemia echocardiograph and ultrasound

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Shyam Patel [2]; Grammar Reviewer: Natalie Harpenau, B.S.[3]

Overview

Additional imaging studies that can be useful in acute promyelocytic leukemia include echocardiogram and ultrasound. Echocardiogram is useful for assessing cardiac function in patients receiving anthracycline chemotherapy. Ultrasound is useful for assessing for deep vein thrombosis which is a common complication of acute myeloid leukemia.

Echocardiograph and ultrasound

  • Echocardiograph: An echocardiogram is an essential imaging modality in patients with acute myeloid leukemia receiving anthracycline chemotherapy.[1] Patients who will be receiving anthracycline-based therapy require a baseline echocardiogram to assess the ejection fraction prior to therapy. Anthracyclines are known to cause cardiac toxicity (specifically cardiomyopathy with cumulative anthracycline doses above 500mg/m2). An echocardiogram should be obtained every three months while on therapy with anthracycline. Echocardiogram also applies particularly to cases of high-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia, in which case the standard of care is to give anthracycline along with all-trans retinoic acid.
  • Ultrasound: This is useful for diagnosis of lower extremity thrombosis, which commonly occurs in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.[2]


References

  1. Neilan TG, Coelho-Filho OR, Pena-Herrera D, Shah RV, Jerosch-Herold M, Francis SA; et al. (2012). "Left ventricular mass in patients with a cardiomyopathy after treatment with anthracyclines". Am J Cardiol. 110 (11): 1679–86. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.07.040. PMC 3496816. PMID 22917553.
  2. Zitek T, Baydoun J, Yepez S, Forred W, Slattery DE (2016). "Mistakes and Pitfalls Associated with Two-Point Compression Ultrasound for Deep Vein Thrombosis". West J Emerg Med. 17 (2): 201–8. doi:10.5811/westjem.2016.1.29335. PMC 4786247. PMID 26973753.

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