Acute liver failure risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Husnain Shaukat, M.D [2]

Overview

The risk factors in the development of acute liver failure can be categorized into viral, drugs and toxins, vascular, metabolic and systemic illnesses. Common risk factors of acute liver failure include acetaminophen toxicity, viral hepatitis (most commonly hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis E), alcoholic hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, sepsis, heart failure, renal failure, immunocompromised state, older age and malnourishment. Acetaminophen toxicity is the most common risk factor of acute liver failure in the developed world and viral hepatitis (most commonly hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis E) is most common in the developing world.

Risk Factors

Risk factors in the development of acute liver failure include:[1][2][3][4][2][5]

References

  1. Ichai P, Samuel D (2008). "Etiology and prognosis of fulminant hepatitis in adults". Liver Transpl. 14 Suppl 2: S67–79. doi:10.1002/lt.21612. PMID 18825677.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ostapowicz G, Fontana RJ, Schiødt FV, Larson A, Davern TJ, Han SH, McCashland TM, Shakil AO, Hay JE, Hynan L, Crippin JS, Blei AT, Samuel G, Reisch J, Lee WM (2002). "Results of a prospective study of acute liver failure at 17 tertiary care centers in the United States". Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (12): 947–54. PMID 12484709.
  3. Hoofnagle JH, Nelson KE, Purcell RH (2012). "Hepatitis E." N Engl J Med. 367 (13): 1237–44. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1204512. PMID 23013075.
  4. Wasley A, Fiore A, Bell BP (2006). "Hepatitis A in the era of vaccination". Epidemiol Rev. 28: 101–11. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxj012. PMID 16775039.
  5. Björnsson E, Olsson R (2005). "Outcome and prognostic markers in severe drug-induced liver disease". Hepatology. 42 (2): 481–9. doi:10.1002/hep.20800. PMID 16025496.



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