Acute coronary syndrome initial management

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Acute Coronary Syndrome Chapters

Heart Attack Patient Information

Unstable Angina Patient Information

Overview

Classification

Unstable Angina
Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Symptoms

Pathophysiology

Risk Factors

Differential Diagnosis

Prevention

AHA/ACC Guidelines for Acute Coronary Syndrome

Guideline for Risk Stratification in ACS
Guideline for Pre-Hospital Evaluation and Care
Guidelines for Initial Management of ACS
Guidelines for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Complicating ACS

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Varun Kumar M.B.B.S; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan M.B.B.S.

Initial Management

2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (DO NOT EDIT)[1]

AF Complicating Acute Coronary Syndrome

Class I
"1. Urgent direct-current cardioversion of new-onset AF in the setting of ACS is recommended for patients with hemodynamic compromise, ongoing ischemia, or inadequate rate control. (Level of Evidence: C)"
"2. Intravenous beta blockers are recommended to slow a rapid ventricular response to AF in patients with ACS who do not display HF, hemodynamic instability, or bronchospasm. (Level of Evidence: C)"
"3. For patients with ACS and AF with CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2 or greater, anticoagulation with warfarin is recommended unless contraindicated. (Level of Evidence: C)"
Class IIb
"1. Administration of amiodarone or digoxin may be considered to slow a rapid ventricular response in patients with ACS and AF associated with severe LV dysfunction and HF or hemodynamic instability. (Level of Evidence: C)"
"2. Administration of nondihydropyridine calcium antagonists might be considered to slow a rapid ventricular response in patients with ACS and AF only in the absence of significant HF or hemodynamic instability. (Level of Evidence: C)"

ACC / AHA 2011 Guidelines - Acute Coronary Syndrome - Initial Management (DO NOT EDIT) [2][3]

Class I

"1. The history, physical examination, 12 lead ECG, and initial cardiac biomarker tests should be integrated to assign patients with chest pain into 1 of 4 categories: a non cardiac diagnosis, chronic stable angina, possible ACS, and definite ACS. (Level C)"

"2. Patients with probable or possible ACS but whose initial 12 lead ECG and cardiac biomarker levels are normal should be observed in a facility with cardiac monitoring (e.g., chest pain unit or hospital telemetry ward), and repeat ECG (or continuous 12-lead ECG monitoring) and repeat cardiac biomarker measurement(s) should be obtained at predetermined, specified time intervals. (Level B)"

"3. In patients with suspected ACS in whom ischemic heart disease is present or suspected, if the follow-up 12 lead ECG and cardiac biomarkers measurements are normal, a stress test (exercise or pharmacological) to provoke ischemia should be performed in the ED, in a chest pain unit, or on an outpatient basis in a timely fashion (within 72 h) as an alternative to inpatient admission. Low-risk patients with a negative diagnostic test can be managed as outpatients. (Level C)"

"4. In low-risk patients who are referred for outpatient stress testing, precautionary appropriate pharmacotherapy (e.g., ASA, sublingual NTG, and/or beta blockers) should be given while awaiting results of the stress test. (Level C)"

"5. Patients with definite ACS and ongoing ischemic symptoms, positive cardiac biomarkers, new ST-segment deviations, new deep T-wave inversions, hemodynamic abnormalities, or a positive stress test should be admitted to the hospital for further management. Admission to the critical care unit is recommended for those with active, ongoing ischemia/injury or hemodynamic or electrical instability. Otherwise, a telemetry step-down unit is reasonable. (Level C)"

"6. Patients with possible ACS and negative cardiac biomarkers who are unable to exercise or who have an abnormal resting ECG should undergo a pharmacological stress test. (Level B)"

"7. Patients with definite ACS and ST-segment elevation in leads V7 to V9 due to left circumflex artery occlusion should be evaluated for immediate reperfusion therapy. (Level A)"

"8. Patients discharged from the ED or chest pain unit should be given specific instructions for activity, medications, additional testing, and follow-up with a personal physician. (Level C)"

"9. Health care providers should instruct patients with suspected ACS for whom nitroglycerin (NTG) has been prescribed previously to take not more than 1 dose of NTG sublingually in response to chest discomfort/pain. If chest discomfort/pain is unimproved or is worsening 5 min after 1 NTG dose has been taken, it is recommended that the patient or family member/friend/caregiver call 9-1-1 immediately to access EMS before taking additional NTG. In patients with chronic stable angina, if symptoms are significantly improved by 1 dose of NTG, it is appropriate to instruct the patient or family member/friend/caregiver to repeat NTG every 5 min for a maximum of 3 doses and call 9-1-1 if symptoms have not resolved completely. (Level C)"

"10. Patients with a suspected ACS with chest discomfort or other ischemic symptoms at rest for greater than 20 min, hemodynamic instability, or recent syncope or presyncope should be referred immediately to an ED. Other patients with a suspected ACS who are experiencing less severe symptoms and who have none of the above high-risk features, including those who respond to an NTG dose, may be seen initially in an ED or an outpatient facility able to provide an acute evaluation. (Level C)"

Class IIa

"1. In patients with suspected ACS with a low or intermediate probability of CAD, in whom the follow up 12 lead ECG and cardiac biomarkers measurements are normal, performance of a non invasive coronary imaging test (i.e., Cardiac / Coronary CT Angiography) is reasonable as an alternative to stress testing. (Level of Evidence: B)"

See Also

Sources

  • 2011 ACCF/AHA Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines[2]
  • The ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction [3]

References

  1. January, C. T.; Wann, L. S.; Alpert, J. S.; Calkins, H.; Cleveland, J. C.; Cigarroa, J. E.; Conti, J. B.; Ellinor, P. T.; Ezekowitz, M. D.; Field, M. E.; Murray, K. T.; Sacco, R. L.; Stevenson, W. G.; Tchou, P. J.; Tracy, C. M.; Yancy, C. W. (2014). "2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society". Circulation. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000041. ISSN 0009-7322.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Anderson JL, Adams CD, Antman EM, Bridges CR, Califf RM, Casey DE, Chavey WE, Fesmire FM, Hochman JS, Levin TN, Lincoff AM, Peterson ED, Theroux P, Wenger NK, Wright RS (2011). "2011 ACCF/AHA Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines". Circulation. doi:10.1161/CIR.0b013e318212bb8b. PMID 21444888. Retrieved 2011-04-08. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Anderson JL, Adams CD, Antman EM; et al. (2007). "ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-Elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2002 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) developed in collaboration with the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine". JACC. 50 (7): e1–e157. PMID 17692738. Text "doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.02.013 " ignored (help); Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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