Acute coronary syndrome pre-hospital evaluation and care

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Acute Coronary Syndrome Chapters

Heart Attack Patient Information

Unstable Angina Patient Information

Overview

Classification

Unstable Angina
Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Symptoms

Pathophysiology

Risk Factors

Differential Diagnosis

Prevention

AHA/ACC Guidelines for Acute Coronary Syndrome

Guideline for Risk Stratification in ACS
Guideline for Pre-Hospital Evaluation and Care
Guidelines for Initial Management of ACS
Guidelines for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Complicating ACS

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editors-In-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]; Smita Kohli, M.D.; Varun Kumar, M.B.B.S.; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S.

ACC / AHA 2007 Guidelines - Acute Coronary Syndrome - Initial Evaluation and Management (Clinical Assessment) (DO NOT EDIT) [1]

Class I

"1. Patients with symptoms that may represent ACS should not be evaluated solely over the telephone but should be referred to a facility that allows evaluation by a physician and the recording of a 12-lead ECG and biomarker determination (e.g., an ED or other acute care facility). (Level C)"

"2. Patients with symptoms of ACS (chest discomfort with or without radiation to the arm[s], back, neck, jaw, or epigastrium; shortness of breath; weakness; diaphoresis; nausea; lightheadedness) should be instructed to call 9-1-1 and should be transported to the hospital by ambulance rather than by friends or relatives. (Level B)"

"3. Health care providers should actively address the following issues regarding ACS with patients with or at risk for CHD and their families or other responsible caregivers:

a. The patient’s heart attack risk; (Level C')
b. How to recognize symptoms of ACS; (Level C)
c. The advisability of calling 9-1-1 if symptoms are unimproved or worsening after 5 min, despite feelings of uncertainty about the symptoms and fear of potential embarrassment; (Level C)
d. A plan for appropriate recognition and response to a potential acute cardiac event, including the phone number to access emergency medical services (EMS), generally 9-1-1. (Level C)"

"4. Prehospital EMS providers should administer 162 to 325 mg of aspirin (ASA; chewed) to chest pain patients suspected of having ACS unless contraindicated or already taken by the patient. Although some trials have used enteric-coated ASA for initial dosing, more rapid buccal absorption occurs with non–enteric-coated formulations. (Level of Evidence: C)"

Class IIa

"1. It is reasonable for health care providers and 9-1-1 dispatchers to advise patients without a history of ASA allergy who have symptoms of ACS to chew ASA (162 to 325 mg) while awaiting arrival of prehospital EMS providers. Although some trials have used enteric- coated ASA for initial dosing, more rapid buccal absorption occurs with non–enteric-coated formulations. (Level B)"

"2. It is reasonable for health care providers and 9-1-1 dispatchers to advise patients who tolerate NTG to repeat NTG every 5 min for a maximum of 3 doses while awaiting ambulance arrival. (Level C)"

"3. It is reasonable that all prehospital EMS providers perform and evaluate 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) in the field (if available) on chest pain patients suspected of ACS to assist in triage decisions. Electrocardiographs with validated computer-generated interpretation algorithms are recommended for this purpose. (Level B)"

"4. If the 12-lead ECG shows evidence of acute injury or ischemia, it is reasonable that prehospital ACLS providers relay the ECG to a predetermined medical control facility and/or receiving hospital. (Level B)"

Sources

  • The ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction [1]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Anderson JL, Adams CD, Antman EM, Bridges CR, Califf RM, Casey DE, Chavey WE, Fesmire FM, Hochman JS, Levin TN, Lincoff AM, Peterson ED, Theroux P, Wenger NK, Wright RS, Smith SC, Jacobs AK, Adams CD, Anderson JL, Antman EM, Halperin JL, Hunt SA, Krumholz HM, Kushner FG, Lytle BW, Nishimura R, Ornato JP, Page RL, Riegel B (2007). "ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-Elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2002 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) developed in collaboration with the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 50 (7): e1–e157. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.02.013. PMID 17692738. Retrieved 2011-04-11. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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