Teratoma surgery

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Teratoma Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Teratoma from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

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Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


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Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Gertrude Djouka, M.D.[2]


Surgical intervention is the mainstay of treatment for teratoma.


  • Surgical intervention is the mainstay of treatment for mature teratoma and immature teratoma stage I in children.[1][2][3]
  • Observation after surgery is very important with serial of follow up exams and serum alpha fetoprotein.[4][5]
  • Surgery with fertility sparing and chemotherapy are indicated for immature teratoma stage II-IV in aldults.[6]


  1. Tapper D, Lack EE (1983). "Teratomas in infancy and childhood. A 54-year experience at the Children's Hospital Medical Center". Ann Surg. 198 (3): 398–410. doi:10.1097/00000658-198309000-00016. PMC 1353316. PMID 6684416.
  2. Göbel, U.; Schneider, D. T.; Calaminus, G.; Haas, R. J.; Schmidt, P.; Harms, D. (2000). "Germ-cell tumors in childhood and adolescence". Annals of Oncology. 11 (3): 263–271. doi:10.1023/A:1008360523160. ISSN 0923-7534.
  3. Marina NM, Cushing B, Giller R, Cohen L, Lauer SJ, Ablin A; et al. (1999). "Complete surgical excision is effective treatment for children with immature teratomas with or without malignant elements: A Pediatric Oncology Group/Children's Cancer Group Intergroup Study". J Clin Oncol. 17 (7): 2137–43. doi:10.1200/JCO.1999.17.7.2137. PMID 10561269.
  4. Egler RA, Gosiengfiao Y, Russell H, Wickiser JE, Frazier AL (2017). "Is surgical resection and observation sufficient for stage I and II sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors? A case series and review". Pediatr Blood Cancer. 64 (5). doi:10.1002/pbc.26311. PMID 27786428.
  5. Dharmarajan H, Rouillard-Bazinet N, Chandy BM (2018). "Mature and immature pediatric head and neck teratomas: A 15-year review at a large tertiary center". Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 105: 43–47. doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.11.031. PMID 29447817.
  6. Norris HJ, Zirkin HJ, Benson WL (1976). "Immature (malignant) teratoma of the ovary: a clinical and pathologic study of 58 cases". Cancer. 37 (5): 2359–72. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(197605)37:5<2359::aid-cncr2820370528>3.0.co;2-q. PMID 1260722.