Table of clinically important viruses

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]



These are tables of the clinically most important [1] viruses. A vast number of viruses cause infectious diseases, but these are the major ones.

By family

The clinically most notable [1] virus species belong to the following families:

Comparison table of clinically important virus families and species
Family Baltimore group Important species [2] envelopment[2] Virion shape[2] Replication site[2]
Adenoviridae dsDNA adenovirus non-enveloped icosahedral nucleus
Picornaviridae +ssRNA coxsackievirus, hepatitis a virus, poliovirus non-enveloped icosahedral
Herpesviridae dsDNA epstein-barr virus, herpes simplex, type 1, herpes simplex, type 2, human cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus, type 8, varicella-zoster virus enveloped nucleus
Hepadnaviridae dsDNA and ssDNA hepatitis B virus enveloped icosahedral nucleus
Flaviviridae +ssRNA hepatitis C viruses enveloped icosahedral
Retroviridae +ssRNA human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enveloped
Orthomyxoviridae -ssRNA influenza virus enveloped spherical nucleus [3]
Paramyxoviridae -ssRNA measles virus, mumps virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus enveloped spherical
Papovaviridae ssDNA papillomavirus non-enveloped icosahedral
Rhabdoviridae -ssRNA rabies virus enveloped helical, bullet shaped
Togaviridae +ssRNA Rubella virus enveloped icosahedral

By type

Type Family Transmission[2] Diseases [2] Treatment[2] Prevention[2] laboratory diagnosis[2]
adenovirus adenoviridae
  • droplet contact (mainly)
  • fecal-oral
  • direct contact (ocular infections)
None

None [4]

Coxsackievirus Picornaviridae fecal-oral, droplet contact Coxsackie infections None None Cell culture, antibody detection
Epstein-Barr virus Herpesviridae Saliva None None
Hepatitis A virus Picornaviridae fecal-oral acute hepatitis Immunoglobulin (post-exposure prophylaxis)
  • Vaccine
  • immunoglobulin (post-exposure prophylaxis)
  • avoid food-contamination
antibody detection
Hepatitis B virus Hepadnaviridae
  • All body fluids (blood, semen, saliva, mother's milk etc.)
vaccine
  • viral antigen detection
  • antibody detection
  • nucleic acid detection
Hepatitis C virus Flaviviridae
  • blood
  • (sexual)
None
  • antibody detection
  • nucleic acid detection
Herpes simplex virus, type 1 Herpesviridae direct contact with saliva and lesions None
Herpes simplex virus, type 2 Herpesviridae
  • sexually
  • birth
cytomegalovirus Herpesviridae
  • tears
  • urine
  • semen
  • saliva
  • vaginal secretions
  • mother's milk
  • crosses placenta
  • blood
None antibody and nucleic acid detection
Human herpesvirus, type 8 Herpesviridae Kaposi sarcoma many in evaluation-stage None Nucleic acid and antibody detection
HIV Retroviridae
  • sexual
  • blood
  • mother's milk
AIDS HAART
  • nucleic acid,
  • p24
  • antibody detection
Influenza virus Orthomyxoviridae droplet contact
measles virus Paramyxoviridae droplet contact None MMR vaccine antibody detection
Mumps virus Paramyxoviridae droplet contact Mumps None MMR vaccine antibody detection
Human papillomavirus Papovaviridae direct contact
  • Visual inspection
  • Antigen detection
  • Nucleic acid detection
Parainfluenza virus Paramyxoviridae droplet contact None None Antibody detection
Poliovirus Picornaviridae fecal-oral Poliomyelitis None Polio vaccine Antibody detection
Rabies virus Rhabdoviridae
  • Animal bite
  • droplet contact
Rabies Post-exposure prophylaxis Pre- and postexposure prophylaxis Histology (postmortem)
Respiratory syncytial virus Paramyxoviridae droplet contact, hand-to-mouth (ribavirin)
  • hand-washing
  • avoidance
antibody and antigen detection
Rubella virus Togaviridae droplet contact None MMR vaccine Antibody detection
Varicella-zoster virus Herpesviridae droplet contact Varicella:

Zoster:

  • Cell culture
  • antigen and nucleic acid detection

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Fisher, Bruce; Harvey, Richard P.; Champe, Pamela C. Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series). Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-8215-5.  Pages 354-366
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Unless else specified in boxes, htne ref is: Fisher, Bruce; Harvey, Richard P.; Champe, Pamela C. Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series). Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-8215-5.  Pages 354-366
  3. Fisher, Bruce; Harvey, Richard P.; Champe, Pamela C. Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series). Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-8215-5.  Page 315
  4. Gray GC, Goswami PR, Malasig MD; et al. (2000). "Adult adenovirus infections:loss of orphaned vaccines precipitates military respiratory disease epidemics". Clin Infect Dis. 31 (3): 663–70. PMID 11017812. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Fisher, Bruce; Harvey, Richard P.; Champe, Pamela C. Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology (Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews Series). Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-8215-5.  Page 47

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