Retinoblastoma epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sahar Memar Montazerin, M.D.[2] Simrat Sarai, M.D. [3]


The incidence of retinoblastoma in the United States has been reported to be 1.2 cases per 100,000 children aged 4 years or younger. The median age at diagnosis of retinoblastoma is 18 months. The average age at diagnosis of retinoblastoma for children with unilateral disease and bilateral disease is 24 months and 12 months respectively. Retinoblastoma affects males and females equally. There is no racial predilection to the development of retinoblastoma.

Epidemiology and Demographics


  • The incidence of retinoblastoma in the United States has been reported to be 1.2 cases per 100,000 children aged 4 years or younger.[1]
  • The tumor incidence has been reported 0.049 cases per 100,000 child aged 5 to 9.


  • There is no data on the prevalence of retinoblastoma.

Case-fatality rate/Mortality rate




  • There is no racial predilection to the development of retinoblastoma.[5]


Country Incidence
Mali 4.25
Uganda 2.4
Zimbabwe 2.33
Hawaii 2.25
India 1.96
Vietnam 1.89
Singapore 1.88
New Zealand 1.78 - 1.86
Spain 1.78
Philippines 1.74
Colombia 1.71
Ecuador 1.66
Nigeria 1.61
Costa Rica 1.57
Peru 1.55


  1. Fernandes, Arthur Gustavo; Pollock, Benjamin D.; Rabito, Felicia A. (2018). "Retinoblastoma in the United States: A 40-Year Incidence and Survival Analysis". Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus. 55 (3): 182–188. doi:10.3928/01913913-20171116-03. ISSN 0191-3913.
  2. Dimaras, Helen; Kimani, Kahaki; Dimba, Elizabeth AO; Gronsdahl, Peggy; White, Abby; Chan, Helen SL; Gallie, Brenda L (2012). "Retinoblastoma". The Lancet. 379 (9824): 1436–1446. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61137-9. ISSN 0140-6736.
  3. Kim, J W; Kathpalia, V; Dunkel, I J; Wong, R K; Riedel, E; Abramson, D H (2008). "Orbital recurrence of retinoblastoma following enucleation". British Journal of Ophthalmology. 93 (4): 463–467. doi:10.1136/bjo.2008.138453. ISSN 0007-1161.
  4. Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Eagle, Ralph C.; Marback, Eduardo F. (2015). "Histopathologic Features and Prognostic Factors": 167–183. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-43451-2_16.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Abramson DH, Frank CM, Susman M, Whalen MP, Dunkel IJ, Boyd NW (1998). "Presenting signs of retinoblastoma". J Pediatr. 132 (3 Pt 1): 505–8. PMID 9544909.
  6. Broaddus E, Topham A, Singh AD (2009). "Incidence of retinoblastoma in the USA: 1975-2004". Br J Ophthalmol. 93 (1): 21–3. doi:10.1136/bjo.2008.138750. PMID 18621794.
  7. Binder PS (1974). "Unusual manifestations of retinoblastoma". Am J Ophthalmol. 77 (5): 674–9. PMID 4132770.
  8. Zakka KA, Yee RD, Foos RY (1983). "Retinoblastoma in a 12-year-old girl". Ann Ophthalmol. 15 (1): 88–91. PMID 6830100.
  9. Kaliki S, Shields CL, Gupta A, Mishra DK, Das C, Say EA, Shields JA (December 2015). "NEWLY DIAGNOSED ACTIVE RETINOBLASTOMA IN ADULTS". Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.). 35 (12): 2483–8. doi:10.1097/IAE.0000000000000612. PMID 26035399.
  10. Singh, Arun (2007). Clinical ophthalmic oncology. Edinburgh: Elsevier Saunders. ISBN 978-1-4160-3167-3.