Pharmacotherapy to Support PCI

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Percutaneous coronary intervention Microchapters


Patient Information


Risk Stratification and Benefits of PCI

Preparation of the Patient for PCI

Equipment Used During PCI

Pharmacotherapy to Support PCI

Vascular Closure Devices

Recommendations for Perioperative Management–Timing of Elective Noncardiac Surgery in Patients Treated With PCI and DAPT

Post-PCI Management

Risk Reduction After PCI

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Hybrid coronary revascularization

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PCI Complications

Factors Associated with Complications
Vessel Perforation
Distal Embolization
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Abrupt Closure
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Renal Failure
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Loss of Side Branch
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PCI in Specific Patients

Cardiogenic Shock
Left Main Coronary Artery Disease
Refractory Ventricular Arrhythmia
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Sole Remaining Conduit
Unprotected Left Main Patient
Adjuncts for High Risk PCI

PCI in Specific Lesion Types

Classification of the Lesion
The Calcified Lesion
The Ostial Lesion
The Angulated or Tortuous Lesion
The Bifurcation Lesion
The Long Lesion
The Bridge Lesion
The Chronic Total Occlusion
The Left Internal Mammary Artery
Multivessel Disease
Distal Anastomotic Lesions
Left Main Intervention
The Thrombotic Lesion

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Pharmacotherapy to Support PCI

Antiplatelet Therapy to Support PCI

2016 ACC/AHA Guideline Focused Update on Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

Recommendations for Duration of DAPT in Patients With ACS Treated With PCI[1]

Class I
"1.In patients with ACS treated with DAPT after BMS or DES implantation, P2Y12 inhibitor therapy (clopidogrel,

prasugrel, or ticagrelor) should be given for at least 12 months(Level of Evidence: B-R)"

"2.In patients treated with DAPT, a daily aspirin dose of 81 mg (range, 75 mg to 100 mg) is recommended(Level of Evidence: B-NR)"
Class IIa
"1.In patients with ACS treated with DAPT after coronary stent implantation, it is reasonable to use ticagrelor in preference to clopidogrel for maintenance P2Y12 inhibitor therapy(Level of Evidence: B-R)"
"2.In patients with ACS treated with DAPT after coronary stent implantation, who are not at high risk for bleeding complications and who do not have a history of stroke or TIA, it is reasonable to choose prasugrel over clopidogrel for maintenance P2Y12 inhibitor therapy ((Level of Evidence: B-R)"
Class IIb
"1.In patients with ACS treated with coronary stent implantation who have tolerated DAPT without bleeding complication and who are not at high bleeding risk (e.g., prior bleeding on DAPT, coagulopathy, oral anticoagulant use) continuation of DAPT for longer than 12 months may be reasonable(Level of Evidence: A SR)"
"2.In patients with ACS treated with DAPT after DES implantation who develop a high risk of bleeding (e.g., treatment with oral anticoagulant therapy), are at high risk of severe bleeding complication (e.g., major intracranial surgery), or develop significant overt bleeding, discontinuation of P2Y12 therapy after 6 months may be reasonable(Level of Evidence: C-LD)"
Class III (No Benefit)
"1.Prasugrel should not be administered to patients with a prior history of stroke or TIA(Level of Evidence: B-R)


Antithrombin Therapy to Support PCI

Statin Therapy to Support PCI


  1. Levine GN, Bates ER, Bittl JA, Brindis RG, Fihn SD, Fleisher LA; et al. (2016). "2016 ACC/AHA guideline focused update on duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary artery disease: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines". J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 152 (5): 1243–1275. doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2016.07.044. PMID 27751237.

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