Pentavalent antimonials (also abbreviated pentavalent Sb or SbV) are a group of compounds used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. They are also called pentavalent antimony compounds.
The first pentavalent antimonial used was urea stibamate: first introduced in the 1930s, it fell out of favour in the 1950s due to higher toxocity compared to sodium stibogluconate.
The compounds currently available for clinical use are:
The pentavalent antimonials can only be given by injection: there are no oral preparations available.
In many countries, widespread resistance to antimony has meant that amphotericin or miltefosine are now used in preference.
Cardiotoxity, reversible renal insufficiency, pancreatitis, anemia, leukopenia, rash, headache, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, thrombocytopenia and transaminase elevation.
- ↑ Olliaro P, Guerin P, Gerstl S; et al. "Treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis: a systematic review of clinical studies done in India, 1980–2004". Lancet Infect Dis. 5 (12). doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70296-6.