Pentavalent antimonial

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Overview

Pentavalent antimonials (also abbreviated pentavalent Sb or SbV) are a group of compounds used for the treatment of leishmaniasis. They are also called pentavalent antimony compounds.

Types

The first pentavalent antimonial used was urea stibamate: first introduced in the 1930s, it fell out of favour in the 1950s due to higher toxocity compared to sodium stibogluconate.

The compounds currently available for clinical use are:

The pentavalent antimonials can only be given by injection: there are no oral preparations available.

Alternatives

In many countries, widespread resistance to antimony has meant that amphotericin or miltefosine are now used in preference.[1]

Side effects

Cardiotoxity, reversible renal insufficiency, pancreatitis, anemia, leukopenia, rash, headache, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, thrombocytopenia and transaminase elevation.

References

  1. Olliaro P, Guerin P, Gerstl S; et al. "Treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis: a systematic review of clinical studies done in India, 1980–2004". Lancet Infect Dis. 5 (12). doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70296-6. Unknown parameter |Pages= ignored (|pages= suggested) (help)




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