Oxytetracycline

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Oxytetracycline
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aparna Vuppala, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Overview

Oxytetracycline is an anti-bacterial agent that is FDA approved for the treatment of indicated in infections caused by the following microorganisms such as Rickettsiae (Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox and tick fevers),Mycoplasma pneumoniae (PPLO, Eaton Agent), Agents of psittacosis and ornithosis, Agents of lymphogranuloma venereum and granuloma inguinale,The spirochetal agent of relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis).. Common adverse reactions include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, and inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region and maculopapular, erythematous rashes and Hypersensitivity reactions such as Urticaria, angioneurotic edema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, pericarditis and exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus..

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

  • Oxytetracycline is indicated in infections caused by the following microorganisms:
  • The following gram negative microorganisms:
  • Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to tetracyclines, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.
  • Oxytetracycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
  • Oxytetracycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
  • Streptococcus species:
  • Oxytetracycline is not the drug of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infections.
  • Tetracyclines are indicated in the treatment of trachoma, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated, as judged by immunofluorescence.
Dosing Information
  • Adults: Usual daily dose, 1–2 g divided in four equal doses, depending on the severity of the infection.
  • Therapy should be continued for at least 24–48 hours after symptoms and fever have subsided.
  • For treatment of brucellosis, 500 mg oxytetracycline four times daily for 3 weeks should be accompanied by streptomycin, 1 gram intramuscularly twice daily the first week, and once daily the second week.
  • For treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea, when penicillin is contraindicated, tetracycline may be used for the treatment of both males and females in the following divided dosage schedule: 1.5 grams initially followed by 0.5 gram q.i.d. for a total of 9.0 grams.
  • For treatment of syphilis, a total of 30–40 grams in equally divided doses over a period of 10–15 days should be given. Close follow-up, including laboratory tests, is recommended.
  • Administration of adequate amounts of fluid along with capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline class is recommended to wash down the drugs and reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration.
  • Food and some dairy products also interfere with absorption. Oral forms of tetracyclines should be given 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. Pediatric oral dosage forms should not be given with milk formulas and should be given at least 1 hour prior to feeding.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Oxytetracycline in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Oxytetracycline in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

  • Oxytetracycline is indicated in infections caused by the following microorganisms:
  • The following gram negative microorganisms:
  • Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to tetracyclines, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.
  • Oxytetracycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
  • Oxytetracycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
  • Streptococcus species:
  • Oxytetracycline is not the drug of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infections.
  • Tetracyclines are indicated in the treatment of trachoma, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated, as judged by immunofluorescence.
Dosing Information
  • For children above eight years of age: Usual daily dose, 10–20 mg per pound (25–50 mg/kg) of body weight divided in four equal doses..
  • Therapy should be continued for at least 24–48 hours after symptoms and fever have subsided.
  • For treatment of brucellosis, 500 mg oxytetracycline four times daily for 3 weeks should be accompanied by streptomycin, 1 gram intramuscularly twice daily the first week, and once daily the second week.
  • For treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea, when penicillin is contraindicated, tetracycline may be used for the treatment of both males and females in the following divided dosage schedule: 1.5 grams initially followed by 0.5 gram q.i.d. for a total of 9.0 grams.
  • For treatment of syphilis, a total of 30–40 grams in equally divided doses over a period of 10–15 days should be given. Close follow-up, including laboratory tests, is recommended.
  • Administration of adequate amounts of fluid along with capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline class is recommended to wash down the drugs and reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration.
  • Food and some dairy products also interfere with absorption. Oral forms of tetracyclines should be given 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. Pediatric oral dosage forms should not be given with milk formulas and should be given at least 1 hour prior to feeding.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Oxytetracycline in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Oxytetracycline in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

Warnings

  • Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema.
  • The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. While this is not a problem in those with normal renal function, in patients with significantly impaired function, higher serum levels of tetracycline may lead to azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis.

Precautions

  • As with other antibiotic preparations, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. *If superinfection occurs, the antibiotic should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
  • In venereal diseases when coexistent syphilis is suspected, a dark field examination should be done before treatment is started and the blood serology repeated monthly for at least 4 months.
  • Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.
  • In long term therapy, periodic laboratory evaluation of organ systems, including hematopoietic, renal and hepatic studies should be performed.
  • All infections due to Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci should be treated for at least 10 days.
  • Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracycline in conjunction with penicillin.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Gastrointestinal
  • Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, and inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines. Rare instances of esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients receiving capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline class. Most of these patients took medications immediately before going to bed.
Skin
Renal toxicity
  • Rise in BUN has been reported and is apparently dose related.
Hypersensitivity reactions
Blood
  • When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of thyroid glands. No abnormalities of thyroid function studies are known to occur.

Postmarketing Experience

There is limited information regarding Postmarketing Experience of Oxytetracycline in the drug label.

Drug Interactions

  • Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage
  • Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracycline in conjunction with penicillin.
  • Concomitant therapy: Antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium impair absorption and should not be given to patients taking oral tetracyclines.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has also been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy.
  • THE USE OF DRUGS OF THE TETRACYCLINE CLASS DURING TOOTH DEVELOPMENT (LAST HALF OF PREGNANCY) MAY CAUSE PERMANENT DISCOLORATION OF THE TEETH (YELLOW-GRAY-BROWN). This adverse reaction is more common during long term use of the drugs but has been observed following repeated short term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. TETRACYCLINE DRUGS, THEREFORE, SHOULD NOT BE USED IN THIS AGE GROUP UNLESS OTHER DRUGS ARE NOT LIKELY TO BE EFFECTIVE OR ARE CONTRAINDICATED.


Pregnancy Category (AUS): There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Oxytetracycline in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Oxytetracycline during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • Tetracyclines are present in the milk of lactating women who are taking a drug in this class.

Pediatric Use

  • All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone forming tissue. A decrease in the fibula growth rate has been observed in prematures given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every 6 hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.
  • THE USE OF DRUGS OF THE TETRACYCLINE CLASS DURING TOOTH DEVELOPMENT ( INFANCY, AND CHILDHOOD TO THE AGE OF 8 YEARS) MAY CAUSE PERMANENT DISCOLORATION OF THE TEETH (YELLOW-GRAY-BROWN). :*This adverse reaction is more common during long term use of the drugs but has been observed following repeated short term courses. :*Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. TETRACYCLINE DRUGS, THEREFORE, SHOULD NOT BE USED IN THIS AGE GROUP UNLESS OTHER DRUGS ARE NOT LIKELY TO BE EFFECTIVE OR ARE CONTRAINDICATED.

Geriatic Use

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Oxytetracycline with respect to geriatric patients.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Oxytetracycline with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Oxytetracycline with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

  • If renal impairment exists, even usual oral or parenteral doses may lead to excessive systemic accumulation of the drug and possible liver toxicity. Under such conditions, lower than usual total doses are indicated and, if therapy is prolonged, serum level determinations of the drug may be advisable.
  • The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. While this is not a problem in those with normal renal function, in patients with significantly impaired function, higher serum levels of tetracycline may lead to azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Oxytetracycline in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Oxytetracycline in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Oxytetracycline in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Oxytetracyclinein the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Oxytetracycline in the drug label.

Overdosage

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Oxytetracycline in the drug label.

Pharmacology

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Mechanism of Action

  • Oxytetracycline is primarily bacteriostatic and is thought to exert its antimicrobial effect by the inhibition of protein synthesis. Oxytetracycline is active against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms.
  • The drugs in the tetracycline class have closely similar antimicrobial spectra, and cross resistance among them is common. Microorganisms may be considered susceptible if the M.I.C. (minimum inhibitory concentration) is not more than 4.0 mcg/ml and intermediate if the M.I.C. is 4.0 to 12.5 mcg/ml.
  • Susceptibility plate testing: A tetracycline disc may be used to determine microbial susceptibility to drugs in the tetracycline class. If the Kirby-Bauer method of disc susceptibility testing is used, a 30 mcg tetracycline disc should give a zone of at least 19 mm when tested against a tetracycline-susceptible bacterial strain.
  • Tetracyclines are readily absorbed and are bound to plasma proteins in varying degree. They are concentrated by the liver in the bile, and excreted in the urine and feces at high concentrations and in a biologically active form.

Structure

  • Oxytetracycline is a product of the metabolism of Streptomyces rimosus and is one of the family of tetracycline antibiotics. A 1 percent solution in water is acidic (pH about 2.5). Its potency is affected in solutions more acid than pH 2 and it is rapidly destroyed by alkali hydroxides.
  • Oxytetracycline diffuses readily through the placenta into the fetal circulation, into the pleural fluid and, under some circumstances, into the cerebrospinal fluid. It appears to be concentrated in the hepatic system and excreted in the bile, so that it appears in the feces, as well as in the urine, in a biologically active form.
  • Inert ingredients in the formulation are: glucosamine hydrochloride; hard gelatin capsules (which may contain Red 3, Yellow 10 and other inert ingredients); magnesium stearate; sodium lauryl sulfate; starch.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Oxytetracycline in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacokinetics of Oxytetracycline in the drug label.

Nonclinical Toxicology

There is limited information regarding Nonclinical Toxicology of Oxytetracycline in the drug label.

Clinical Studies

There is limited information regarding Clinical Studies of Oxytetracycline in the drug label.

How Supplied

  • Terramycin (oxytetracycline HCl) Capsules are available as opaque, yellow, hard gelatin capsules which contain oxytetracycline HCl equivalent to 250 mg of oxytetracycline, and glucosamine hydrochloride: bottles of 100 (NDC 0069-0730-66), 500 (NDC 0069-0730-73).

Storage

There is limited information regarding Oxytetracycline Storage in the drug label.

Images

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Patient Counseling Information

There is limited information regarding Patient Counseling Information of Oxytetracycline in the drug label.

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Oxytetracycline interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

  • A® — B®

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

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