Myocarditis epidemiology and demographics
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D.  Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Varun Kumar, M.B.B.S., Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. , Maliha Shakil, M.D.  Homa Najafi, M.D.
The incidence of myocarditis is approximately 10 to 20 per 100,000 patients worldwide. It commonly affects younger individuals. Yong males are slightly more commonly affected by myocarditis than females. There is no racial predilection to myocarditis. Viral infections especially coxsackie B and enterovirus are the most common cause of myocarditis in developed countries. While, In South America, Chagas' disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) is the main cause of myocarditis.
Epidemiology and Demographics
- The prevalence of myocarditis is estimated to be 1.5 million cases annually.
- Myocarditis commonly affects younger individuals; the median age at diagnosis of lymphocytic myocarditis is 42 years, and this number is 43 years in giant cell myocarditis.
- Among competitive athletes, myocarditis is accused of the third cause of sudden cardiac death.
- Yong males are slightly more commonly affected by myocarditis than females. This may be due to protection conferred by the ovarian cycle.
- There is no racial predilection to myocarditis.
Etiology in Developed Countries
- Viral infections are the most common cause of myocarditis in developed countries. 
- Common viral causes include coxsackie B and enterovirus.
- The frequency of dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to myocarditis is 7.5-10 per 100,000 individuals with enterovirus infections, with the Coxsackie-B viruses being the most common cause.
- Recent studies show that adenovirus, parvovirus B19, hepatitis C, and human herpes virus 6 were the common causes for myocarditis.
- Myocarditis secondary to lyme disease should be suspected in people traveling to regions where it is endemic, particularly if there are associated conduction abnormalities of the heart.
Etiology in Developing Countries
In South America, Chagas' disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) is the main cause of myocarditis. Other causes in developing countries include rheumatic fever and HIV infection.
- ↑ Michael Kang & Jason An (2019). "Viral Myocarditis". PMID 29083732. Unknown parameter
- ↑ Maron, Barry J.; Levine, Benjamin D.; Washington, Reginald L.; Baggish, Aaron L.; Kovacs, Richard J.; Maron, Martin S. (2015). "Eligibility and Disqualification Recommendations for Competitive Athletes With Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Task Force 2: Preparticipation Screening for Cardiovascular Disease in Competitive Athletes". Circulation. 132 (22). doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000238. ISSN 0009-7322.
- ↑ Cooper, Leslie T.; Berry, Gerald J.; Shabetai, Ralph (1997). "Idiopathic Giant-Cell Myocarditis — Natural History and Treatment". New England Journal of Medicine. 336 (26): 1860–1866. doi:10.1056/NEJM199706263362603. ISSN 0028-4793.
- ↑ Schwartz J, Sartini D, Huber S (2004). "Myocarditis susceptibility in female mice depends upon ovarian cycle phase at infection". Virology. 330 (1): 16–23. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2004.06.051. PMID 15527830.
- ↑ Friman G, Wesslén L, Fohlman J, Karjalainen J, Rolf C (1995). "The epidemiology of infectious myocarditis, lymphocytic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy". Eur Heart J. 16 Suppl O: 36–41. PMID 8682098.
- ↑ Kindermann I, Kindermann M, Kandolf R, Klingel K, Bültmann B, Müller T; et al. (2008). "Predictors of outcome in patients with suspected myocarditis". Circulation. 118 (6): 639–48. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.769489. PMID 18645053. Unknown parameter
- ↑ Kühl U, Pauschinger M, Noutsias M, Seeberg B, Bock T, Lassner D; et al. (2005). "High prevalence of viral genomes and multiple viral infections in the myocardium of adults with "idiopathic" left ventricular dysfunction". Circulation. 111 (7): 887–93. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000155616.07901.35. PMID 15699250. Unknown parameter
- ↑ McAlister HF, Klementowicz PT, Andrews C, Fisher JD, Feld M, Furman S (1989). "Lyme carditis: an important cause of reversible heart block". Ann Intern Med. 110 (5): 339–45. PMID 2644885.
- ↑ Carapetis JR, Steer AC, Mulholland EK, Weber M (2005). "The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases". Lancet Infect Dis. 5 (11): 685–94. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70267-X. PMID 16253886.