Mitral stenosis causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]; Varun Kumar, M.B.B.S.; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S.; Mohammed A. Sbeih, M.D. [3]; Vendhan Ramanujam M.B.B.S [4]


The most of cases of mitral stenosis is rheumatic heart disease in developing countries; rare in developed countries (the U.S). Rheumatic heart disease occurs as a complication of group A streptococcal infection in genetically susceptible individuals. Less common causes of mitral stenosis include: Congenital, mitral annular calcification, rheumatic fever, radiation (Chest radiation), autoimmune diseases (Lupus).


Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

Common causes of mitral stenosis include:[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, cor triatriatum, double orifice mitral valve, endocarditis, endomyocardial fibrosis, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, left atrial myxoma, left atrial thrombus, Loeffler endocarditis, Lutembacher syndrome, mitral annular calcification, parachute mitral valve, post AV canal defect repair, prosthetic mitral valve, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, rheumatic fever, Shone's syndrome, supravalve mitral membrane
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Ergotamines, methysergide
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental Radiation
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic Bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of aorta, congenital, cor triatriatum, double orifice mitral valve, Fabry disease, Hunter syndrome, Hurler syndrome, hypoplastic left heart syndrome , Lutembacher syndrome, mucopolysaccharidosis, parachute mitral valve, Shone's syndrome, supravalve mitral membrane
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Post AV canal defect repair, prosthetic mitral valve, radiation
Infectious Disease Infective endocarditis
Musculoskeletal / Ortho No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional / Metabolic Fabry disease, hemodialysis, Hunter syndrome, Hurler syndrome, mucopolysaccharidosis
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Carcinoid tumor, left atrial myxoma
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal / Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Amyloidosis, ankylosing spondylitis, Loeffler endocarditis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order


  1. Maganti K, Rigolin VH, Sarano ME, Bonow RO (2010). "Valvular heart disease: diagnosis and management". Mayo Clin Proc. 85 (5): 483–500. doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0706. PMC 2861980. PMID 20435842.
  2. Allison, Matthew A.; Cheung, Philip; Criqui, Michael H.; Langer, Robert D.; Wright, C. Michael (2006). "Mitral and Aortic Annular Calcification Are Highly Associated With Systemic Calcified Atherosclerosis". Circulation. 113 (6): 861–866. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.552844. ISSN 0009-7322.
  3. Gujral, Dorothy M; Lloyd, Guy; Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev (2016). "Radiation-induced valvular heart disease". Heart. 102 (4): 269–276. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308765. ISSN 1355-6037.
  4. Hasegawa, Ryo; Kitahara, Hiroto; Watanabe, Kuniyoshi; Kuroda, Hideo; Amano, Jun (2001). "Mitral stenosis and regurgitation with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome". The Japanese Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 49 (12): 711–713. doi:10.1007/BF02913510. ISSN 1344-4964.
  5. Tadele, H.; Mekonnen, W.; Tefera, E. (2013). "Rheumatic mitral stenosis in Children: more accelerated course in sub-Saharan Patients". BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 13 (1): 95. doi:10.1186/1471-2261-13-95. PMID 24180350. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. Fox, DJ.; Khattar, RS. (2004). "Carcinoid heart disease: presentation, diagnosis, and management". Heart. 90 (10): 1224–8. doi:10.1136/hrt.2004.040329. PMID 15367531. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. Collins-Nakai, RL.; Rosenthal, A.; Castaneda, AR.; Bernhard, WF.; Nadas, AS. (1977). "Congenital mitral stenosis. A review of 20 years' experience". Circulation. 56 (6): 1039–47. PMID 923042. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  8. Lee, SH.; Kim, J.; Choi, JH.; Yun, KW.; Sohn, CB.; Han, DC.; Kim, JS.; Park, YH.; Kim, JH. (2013). "Severe mitral stenosis secondary to Hunter's syndrome". Circulation. 128 (11): 1269–70. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.001688. PMID 24019448. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  9. Tiong, IY.; Novaro, GM.; Jefferson, B.; Monson, M.; Smedira, N.; Penn, MS. (2002). "Bacterial endocarditis and functional mitral stenosis: a report of two cases and brief literature review". Chest. 122 (6): 2259–62. PMID 12475876. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  10. Osterberger, LE.; Goldstein, S.; Khaja, F.; Lakier, JB. (1981). "Functional mitral stenosis in patients with massive mitral annular calcification". Circulation. 64 (3): 472–6. PMID 7261279. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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