Pulmonary vein stenosis

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Pulmonary vein stenosis
Pulmonary vein stenosis: Gross, natural color, close-up view, veins draining into atrium.
Image courtesy of Professor Peter Anderson DVM PhD and published with permission © PEIR, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology

WikiDoc Resources for Pulmonary vein stenosis


Most recent articles on Pulmonary vein stenosis

Most cited articles on Pulmonary vein stenosis

Review articles on Pulmonary vein stenosis

Articles on Pulmonary vein stenosis in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Pulmonary vein stenosis

Images of Pulmonary vein stenosis

Photos of Pulmonary vein stenosis

Podcasts & MP3s on Pulmonary vein stenosis

Videos on Pulmonary vein stenosis

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Pulmonary vein stenosis

Bandolier on Pulmonary vein stenosis

TRIP on Pulmonary vein stenosis

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Pulmonary vein stenosis at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Pulmonary vein stenosis

Clinical Trials on Pulmonary vein stenosis at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Pulmonary vein stenosis

NICE Guidance on Pulmonary vein stenosis


FDA on Pulmonary vein stenosis

CDC on Pulmonary vein stenosis


Books on Pulmonary vein stenosis


Pulmonary vein stenosis in the news

Be alerted to news on Pulmonary vein stenosis

News trends on Pulmonary vein stenosis


Blogs on Pulmonary vein stenosis


Definitions of Pulmonary vein stenosis

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Pulmonary vein stenosis

Discussion groups on Pulmonary vein stenosis

Patient Handouts on Pulmonary vein stenosis

Directions to Hospitals Treating Pulmonary vein stenosis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Pulmonary vein stenosis

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Pulmonary vein stenosis

Causes & Risk Factors for Pulmonary vein stenosis

Diagnostic studies for Pulmonary vein stenosis

Treatment of Pulmonary vein stenosis

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Pulmonary vein stenosis


Pulmonary vein stenosis en Espanol

Pulmonary vein stenosis en Francais


Pulmonary vein stenosis in the Marketplace

Patents on Pulmonary vein stenosis

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Pulmonary vein stenosis

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Pulmonary vein stenosis is extremely rare, progressive and usually fatal, if left untreated.

Isolated stenosis of pulmonary veins, as they enter into the left atrium, is a rare congenital cardiac abnormality that has significant impact on clinical outcome.

Diagnosis is difficult to suspect, especially in the absence of other cardiac abnormalities.

Symptoms and clinical signs of pulmonary vein stenosis are very similar to those of chronic lung disease and are very difficult to differentiate.

Historical Perspective

  • [Disease name] was first discovered by [scientist name], a [nationality + occupation], in [year] during/following [event].
  • In [year], [gene] mutations were first identified in the pathogenesis of [disease name].
  • In [year], the first [discovery] was developed by [scientist] to treat/diagnose [disease name].


  • [Disease name] may be classified according to [classification method] into [number] subtypes/groups:
  • [group1]
  • [group2]
  • [group3]
  • Other variants of [disease name] include [disease subtype 1], [disease subtype 2], and [disease subtype 3].


Normal Pulmonary Vein (Lateral)


Normal Pulmonary Vein (PA)


Left Upper Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Pulsed Wave Echo

Left Upper Pulmonary Vein Stenosis post Atrial Fibrillation Ablation


Pathological Findings

Images courtesy of Professor Peter Anderson DVM PhD and published with permission © PEIR, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology


  • [Disease name] may be caused by either [cause1], [cause2], or [cause3].
  • [Disease name] is caused by a mutation in the [gene1], [gene2], or [gene3] gene[s].
  • There are no established causes for [disease name].

Differentiating [disease name] from other Diseases

  • [Disease name] must be differentiated from other diseases that cause [clinical feature 1], [clinical feature 2], and [clinical feature 3], such as:
  • [Differential dx1]
  • [Differential dx2]
  • [Differential dx3]

Epidemiology and Demographics

  • The prevalence of [disease name] is approximately [number or range] per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
  • In [year], the incidence of [disease name] was estimated to be [number or range] cases per 100,000 individuals in [location].


  • Patients of all age groups may develop [disease name].
  • [Disease name] is more commonly observed among patients aged [age range] years old.
  • [Disease name] is more commonly observed among [elderly patients/young patients/children].


  • [Disease name] affects men and women equally.
  • [Gender 1] are more commonly affected with [disease name] than [gender 2].
  • The [gender 1] to [Gender 2] ratio is approximately [number > 1] to 1.


  • There is no racial predilection for [disease name].
  • [Disease name] usually affects individuals of the [race 1] race.
  • [Race 2] individuals are less likely to develop [disease name].

Risk Factors

  • Common risk factors in the development of [disease name] are [risk factor 1], [risk factor 2], [risk factor 3], and [risk factor 4].

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

  • The majority of patients with [disease name] remain asymptomatic for [duration/years].
  • Early clinical features include [manifestation 1], [manifestation 2], and [manifestation 3].
  • If left untreated, [#%] of patients with [disease name] may progress to develop [manifestation 1], [manifestation 2], and [manifestation 3].
  • Common complications of [disease name] include [complication 1], [complication 2], and [complication 3].
  • Prognosis is generally [excellent/good/poor], and the [1/5/10­year mortality/survival rate] of patients with [disease name] is approximately [#%].


Diagnostic Criteria

  • The diagnosis of [disease name] is made when at least [number] of the following [number] diagnostic criteria are met:
  • [criterion 1]
  • [criterion 2]
  • [criterion 3]
  • [criterion 4]


  • [Disease name] is usually asymptomatic.
  • Symptoms of [disease name] may include the following:
  • [symptom 1]
  • [symptom 2]
  • [symptom 3]
  • [symptom 4]
  • [symptom 5]
  • [symptom 6]

Physical Examination

  • Patients with [disease name] usually appear [general appearance].
  • Physical examination may be remarkable for:
  • [finding 1]
  • [finding 2]
  • [finding 3]
  • [finding 4]
  • [finding 5]
  • [finding 6]

Laboratory Findings

  • There are no specific laboratory findings associated with [disease name].
  • A [positive/negative] [test name] is diagnostic of [disease name].
  • An [elevated/reduced] concentration of [serum/blood/urinary/CSF/other] [lab test] is diagnostic of [disease name].
  • Other laboratory findings consistent with the diagnosis of [disease name] include [abnormal test 1], [abnormal test 2], and [abnormal test 3].

Imaging Findings

  • There are no [imaging study] findings associated with [disease name].
  • [Imaging study 1] is the imaging modality of choice for [disease name].
  • On [imaging study 1], [disease name] is characterized by [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
  • [Imaging study 2] may demonstrate [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].

Other Diagnostic Studies

  • [Disease name] may also be diagnosed using [diagnostic study name].
  • Findings on [diagnostic study name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].


Medical Therapy

  • There is no treatment for [disease name]; the mainstay of therapy is supportive care.
  • The mainstay of therapy for [disease name] is [medical therapy 1] and [medical therapy 2].
  • [Medical therapy 1] acts by [mechanism of action 1].
  • Response to [medical therapy 1] can be monitored with [test/physical finding/imaging] every [frequency/duration].


  • Surgery is the mainstay of therapy for [disease name].
  • [Surgical procedure] in conjunction with [chemotherapy/radiation] is the most common approach to the treatment of [disease name].
  • [Surgical procedure] can only be performed for patients with [disease stage] [disease name].


  • There are no primary preventive measures available for [disease name].
  • Effective measures for the primary prevention of [disease name] include [measure1], [measure2], and [measure3].
  • Once diagnosed and successfully treated, patients with [disease name] are followed-up every [duration]. Follow-up testing includes [test 1], [test 2], and [test 3].



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