Mitral regurgitation resident survival guide

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mugilan Poongkunran M.B.B.S [2]

Mitral Regurgitation Resident Survival Guide Microchapters
Overview
Causes
FIRE
Complete Diagnostic Approach
Treatment
Acute MR
Chronic MR
Do's
Don'ts

Overview

Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a disorder of the heart characterized by failure of the mitral valve to close properly during systole leading to blood leakage from the left ventricle to the left atrium during systole. Individuals with acute mitral regurgitation may present with significant hemodynamic instability due to the sudden drop in cardiac output, leading to acute pulmonary edema, hypotension and possible cardiogenic shock. Individuals with chronic compensated mitral regurgitation may be asymptomatic, with a normal exercise tolerance and no evidence of heart failure, or may present with fatigue, dyspnea on exertion, orthopnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.[1] The management of MR includes afterload reduction with careful monitoring of fluid status, management of the underlying disease (CAD, mitral valve prolapse, rheumatic heart disease), and early surgical intervention in severe cases. Ultimately, the management of MR depends on the anatomy of the mitral valve, the acuteness of the disease process, and the severity of presentation. [2]

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

Acute Mitral Regurgitation

Chronic Primary Mitral Regurgitation

Chronic Secondary Mitral Regurgitation

Click here for the complete list of causes.

FIRE: Focused Initial Rapid Evaluation

A Focused Initial Rapid Evaluation (FIRE) should be performed to identify patients in need of immediate intervention.

Boxes in red color signify that an urgent management is needed. Abbreviations: ARBs: Angiotensin II receptor antagonist; CABG: Coronary artery bypass surgery; HF: Heart failure; IE: Infective endocarditis; LVEF: Left ventricular ejection fraction; LV: Left ventricle; MR: Mitral regurgitation; S1: First heart sound; S2: Second heart sound

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Identify cardinal findings that increase the pretest probability of mitral regurgitation:

Murmur:

❑ Soft, low pitched and decrescendo (in acute MR due to diminished pressure gradient between the left atrium and ventricle)
❑ High pitched and blowing holosystolic murmur best heard over the apex radiating to the axilla and back
❑ Silent (in acute ischemic MR)

Heart sounds:

S1 is diminished (typical)
❑ Wide splitting of S2 (low forward flow causing early A2)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Does the patient have any of the following findings of acute mitral regurgitation with instability?

❑ Sudden onset and rapid progression of pulmonary edema:

Shortness of breath
Tachypnea
Crackles or rales

Signs and symptoms of cardiogenic shock:

Tachycardia
Hypotension
Altered mental status
Oliguria
Diaphoresis
Cold extremities
Peripheral cyanosis
Mottling
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continue with complete diagnostic approach below
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Initiate resuscitative measures:

❑ Secure airway
❑ Administer O2
❑ Establish 2 wide bore IV access
❑ Establish an arterial line
❑ Connect to ECG monitor
❑ Monitor vitals continuously
❑ Consider ICU admission
❑ Consider mechanical ventilation
❑ Consider pulmonary artery catheterization


Order imaging and blood tests (urgent):
Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE)
Chest X-ray
CBC
Serum electrolytes
Blood cultures (in case of fever)
❑ Serum cardiac troponin I and T
Creatine kinase (CK-MB)
❑ Serum urea and creatinine

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Does the patient has any evidence of MR in TTE?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Stabilize the patient:
❑ Initiate medical stabilization:

Vasodilator (IV nitroprusside) PLUS inotropic agents (IV dobutamine)

❑ Establish intra-aortic balloon pump:

❑ If medical therapy is not effective to maintain hemodynamic stability

Initiate treatment for specific etiologies:
Aspirin in case of myocardial infarction
❑ Antibiotics in case of infective endocarditis

 
Consider other possible diagnosis:

Acute respiratory distress syndromeSepsis

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Does the patient have any findings on TTE that require mitral valve surgery?

❑ Flail mitral leaflet (papillary muscle or chordal rupture)
❑ Any signs of endocarditis

❑ Vegetations on the leaflets
❑ Paravalvular abscess
❑ Moderate to severe ischemic MR
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Perform mitral valve surgery:

Mitral valve repair:

❑ Most preferred
❑ Done in absence of papillary muscle necrosis

Mitral valve replacement:

❑ Performed in cases of complex MR with extensive tissue destruction
❑ Performed in cases of MR with lateral LV wall motion abnormality
 
Perform reperfusion or revascularization:

❑ In patients with acute coronary syndrome, CABG or coronary angioplasty should be performed
❑ Early reperfusion for myocardial infarction can reduce localized LV remodeling and hence MR

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Perform reperfusion or revascularization:

❑ Perform CABG or coronary angioplasty at the time of mitral valve surgery in patients with myocardial infarction


Consider cardiac transplantation:
❑ On some occasions with no contraindication for surgery
❑ For patients with severe LV dysfunction

 
 
 
 
 

Complete Diagnostic Approach to Mitral Regurgitation

A complete diagnostic approach should be carried out after a focused initial rapid evaluation is conducted and following initiation of any urgent intervention.[2].
Abbreviations: AF: Atrial fibrillation; MR: Mitral regurgitation; EKG: Electrocardiogram; EF: Ejection fraction; S1: First heart sound; S2: Second heart sound; S3: Third heart sound; LV: Left ventricle; MVP: Mitral valve prolapse

 
 
 
 
 
 
Characterize the symptoms:

Acute mitral regurgitation:Symptoms of shock and pulmonary edema:

Shortness of breath
Orthopnea
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Cough
Altered mental status
Pedel edema
Oliguria
Cyanosis
Pallor
Diaphoresis
Abdominal pain (may be suggestive of mesenteric ischemia)

Symptoms suggestive of precipitating events:

Chest pain (suggestive of myocardial ischemia)
Fever (suggestive of infective endocarditis)
Petechiae, Osler's nodes, Janeway lesions (suggestive of infective endocarditis)

Chronic mitral regurgitation:Asymptomatic

❑ Typical in isolated mild to moderate MR
❑ Severe MR until there is left ventricular failure, pulmonary hypertension or atrial fibrillation

Symptoms associated with decreased forward flow and increased backflow across mitral valve (left ventricular failure):

Exertional dyspnea
Orthopnea
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Exercise intolerance
Fatigue
Light-headedness
Exertional syncope
Exertional angina
Cough

Symptoms associated with complications:

Palpitations (suggestive of atrial fibrillation)
Hoarseness (recurrent laryngeal nerve compression due to left atrium enlargement)
Fever (suggestive of infective endocarditis)
Stroke (suggestive of thromboembolism)
Hemoptysis (suggestive of thromboembolism)
Flank pain and hematuria (suggestive of septic emboli or glomerulonephritis)
Seizures (suggestive of thromboembolism)
❑ Symptoms of right heart failure:
Ascites
Pedel edema
Abdominal pain (hepatomegaly)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Examine the patient:

Vital signs:
Pulse

❑ Rapid and thready (in acute MR)
❑ Low volume with brisk upstroke (in chronic MR)
Irregularly irregular pulse (with onset of AF)

Blood pressure

Hypotension (in acute MR)
❑ Normotensive (in chronic MR with preserved ejection fraction)

Temperature

Fever (suggestive of infective endocarditis)

Respiratory rate

Tachypnea (typical)

Skin:
❑ Cool and clammy (in cardiogenic shock)
Cyanosis
Peripheral edema (suggestive of right heart failure)

Cardiovascular system:
Palpation:
Apical impulse

❑ Leftward displacement (in chronic MR due enlargement of the left ventricle)
❑ Hyperdynamic but in normal location (in acute MR)

Thrill (in acute MR and severe chronic MR)
❑ Elevated jugular venous pulse

❑ Sign of elevated right sided pressure
❑ Seen in acute MR and severe chronic MR

Auscultation:
❑ Heart sounds

S1 is diminished (suggestive of MR)
❑ Wide splitting of S2 (low forward flow causing early A2)
❑ Loud and delayed P2 (suggestive of pulmonary hypertension)
❑ New S3 (suggestive of left ventricular dilation)

Murmur

❑ High pitched and blowing holosystolic murmur (typical)
❑ Best heard over the apex radiating to the axilla and back
❑ Starts after S1 and continues up to and sometime beyond and obscuring A2
❑ Other types of murmur
❑ Silent (in cases of acute MR)
❑ Mid to late systolic murmur (in case of papillary muscle prolapse)
❑ Early diastolic murmur (due to large diastolic flow across severe MR)
❑ Mid systolic click (suggestive of mitral valve prolapse)

Respiratory system:
Crackles or rales (suggestive of pulmonary edema)
Tachypnea

Abdominal system:
❑ Hepatojugular reflex
Hepatomegaly
Ascites

Neurological system:
Stroke (in case of thromboembolism)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Order electrocardiogram (urgent):

❑ In acute MR

❑ Mostly normal
❑ Findings of myocardial infarction

❑ In chronic MR

❑ Findings of left ventricular hypertrophy with strain
❑ Findings of left atrial enlargement
❑ Findings of pulmonary hypertension
❑ Findings of atrial fibrillation complication
Left atrial enlargement produces a broad, bifid P wave in lead II (P mitrale)

Order chest X-ray (urgent):
Acute MR

❑ Normal size cardiac silhouette
❑ Signs of pulmonary edema

Chronic MR

Cardiomegaly
❑ Signs of pulmonary edema if left ventricle fails
❑ Calcification of the mitral valve annulus
Calcification of the mitral annulus around the margins of the posterior leaflet forming a “C”

Order transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) (urgent):
❑ Confirmatory
❑ To determine severity and assess hemodynamic consequences
❑ To establish etiology
❑ To determine prognosis and evaluate for timing of intervention

Order lab tests:
CBC
Electrolytes
ESR
Serum cardiac troponin I and T
Creatine kinase (CK-MB)
Blood cultures (in case of fever)
❑ Serum urea and creatinine

Other tests:
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE if TTE is equivocal)
Cardiac catheterization:

❑ In stable acute MR to detect coronary obstruction
❑ To assess hemodynamic status in symptomatic patients when noninvasive tests are inconclusive
❑ To assess the severity when there is discrepancy between noninvasive testing and physical examination

❑ Exercise testing:

❑ Done in asymptomatic severe MR
❑ To confirm the absence of symptoms
❑ To assess the hemodynamic response to exercise

Cardiac MRI

❑ To assess severity when there is a discrepancy between clinical findings and echocardiography
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Does the patient has acute or chronic MR?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acute MR (Cardinal findings suggestive of acute mitral regurgitation)

❑ Sudden onset and rapid progression of pulmonary edema
Signs and symptoms of cardiogenic shock
❑ Silent to holosystolic murmur on auscultation
❑ Normal ECG
❑ Normal size cardiac silhouette on chest X-ray
Echocardiography findings:

❑ Acute severe mitral regurgitation
❑ Normal left ventricular size
❑ Reduced EF
❑ Ruptured mitral chordae tendinae (flail leaflet)
❑ Ruptured papillary muscle
 
 
 
 
 
Chronic MR (cardinal findings suggestive of chronic mitral regurgitation)

❑ Asymptomatic to chronic symptoms
❑ Pre-existing heart disease
❑ Classic holosystolic murmur on auscultation
ECG findings of left ventricular hypertrophy with strain and left atrial enlargement
Cardiomegaly on chest X-ray
Echocardiography findings:

Mitral regurgitation
Left ventricular dilation
❑ Preserved to decreased EF
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Does the mitral valve anatomy appear normal in TTE?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chronic secondary mitral regurgitation
 
Chronic primary mitral regurgitation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Treatment

Treatment of Acute Mitral Regurgitation

Shown below is an algorithm summarizing the approach to the management of acute mitral regurgitation.[1][2].
Abbreviations: IE: Infective endocarditis; LV: Left ventricle; LVEF: Left ventricular ejection fraction; MR: Mitral regurgitation

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Does the patient has any signs of hemodynamic instability?

Hypotension
Cold extremities
Peripheral cyanosis
Altered mental status

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
 
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Initiate resuscitative measures:

❑ Secure airway
❑ Administer O2
❑ Establish 2 wide bore IV access
❑ Establish an arterial line
❑ Connect to ECG monitor
❑ Monitor vitals continuously
❑ Consider ICU admission
❑ Consider mechanical ventilation
❑ Consider pulmonary artery catheterization


Stabilize the patient:
❑ Initiate medical stabilization:

Vasodilator (IV nitroprusside) PLUS inotropic agents (IV dobutamine)

❑ Establish intra-aortic balloon pump:

❑ If medical therapy is not effective to maintain hemodynamic stability
 
 
 
Initiate resuscitative measures:

❑ Administer O2
❑ Establish 2 wide bore IV access
❑ Connect to ECG monitor
❑ Monitor vitals continuously


Initiate medical therapy:

Vasodilator therapy: IV nitroprusside
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MR due to IE (organic MR)
 
 
 
 
 
Ischemic mitral regurgitation
 
 
 
 
 
MR due to heart failure exacerbation(functional MR)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Initiate IE medical therapy:


❑ Click here for infective endocarditis resident survival guide and antimicrobial treatment

 
 
 
 
 
Perform reperfusion or revascularization surgery:

CABG or coronary angioplasty should be done to treat acute coronary syndrome
❑ Early reperfusion can reduce localized LV remodeling and hence MR

 
 
 
 
 
Initiate treatment for heart failure:

❑ Click here for acute heart failure resident survival guide

ACE inhibitors or (ARBs) if LVEF is ≤ 40%
Beta blockers
❑ Intravenous inotropic drugs (dobutamine)
Diuretic therapy
❑ IV vasodilators
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Does the patient has any indications for mitral valve surgery?

❑ Hemodynamic instability
❑ Persistent heart failure
Pulmonary hypertension

❑ Early mitral valve closure
 
 
 
 
 
Does the patient has any indications for mitral valve surgery?

Papillary muscle rupture
Chordae tendinae rupture

❑ Moderate to severe ischemic MR who are undergoing CABG
 
 
 
 
 
Does the patient show any hemodynamic improvement to medical therapy?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
No
 
Yes
 
No
 
Yes
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Perform mitral valve surgery:

Mitral valve replacement:

❑ Mostly done
❑ Due to extensive tissue destruction in IE patients

Mitral valve repair:

❑ If less mitral valve destruction
 
❑ Continue with medical management
 
Perform mitral valve surgery:

❑ Done at the time of reperfusion
Mitral valve repair:

❑ Most preferred

Mitral valve replacement: Preferred in the following groups

❑ In centers with surgeons who do not have expertise in mitral valve repair techniques
❑ Very ill patients presenting after an acute MI
❑ Complex MR
❑ In cases of lateral LV wall motion abnormality
 

Consider medical therapy:
❑ In cases of reduced LVEF (ischemic cardiomyopathy)
❑ Medications:

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
Angiotensin II receptor blockers
Beta blockers

Consider cardiac transplantation:
❑ On some occasions in patients with severe LV dysfunction with no contraindication for surgery

 
Continue with the heart failure management and have appropriate follow ups to assess the severity of MR
 
Consider mitral valve surgery:

Mitral valve repair:

❑ Most preferred

Mitral valve replacement:

❑ In centers with surgeons who do not have expertise in mitral valve repair techniques
❑ In cases of lateral LV wall motion abnormality
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Initiate anticoagulation therapy:

❑ For patients undergoing mitral valve replacement
Warfarin: Target INR 3
Aspirin: 75 to 100 mg/day


Educate the patient about IE prophylaxis:
❑ For all patients
❑ Indicated for the following procedures:

Dental procedures
Respiratory tract procedures
GI and GU procedures
 
 
 
Initiate anticoagulation therapy:

❑ For patients undergoing mitral valve replacement
Warfarin: Target INR 3
Aspirin: 75 to 100 mg/day


Educate the patient about IE prophylaxis:
❑ For patients who undergo mitral valve replacement
❑ Indicated for the following procedures:

Dental procedures
Respiratory tract procedures
GI and GU procedures
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Initiate anticoagulation therapy:

❑ For patients undergoing mitral valve replacement
Warfarin: Target INR 3
Aspirin: 75 to 100 mg/day


Educate the patient about IE prophylaxis:
❑ For patients who undergo mitral valve replacement
❑ Indicated for the following procedures:

Dental procedures
Respiratory tract procedures
GI and GU procedures
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Treatment of Chronic Mitral Regurgitation

Chronic Primary Mitral Regurgitation

Shown below is an algorithm summarizing the approach to the management of chronic primary mitral regurgitation.[2].
Abbreviations: AF: Atrial fibrillation; IE: Infective endocarditis; LVEF: Left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESD: Left ventricular end systolic dimension; MR: Mitral regurgitation; MVP: Mitral valve proplapse; PASP: Pulmonary artery systolic pressure; RHD: Rheumatic heart disease

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Determine the severity of MR on TTE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Severe MR:

❑ Severe MVP with loss of coaptation
RHD with loss of central coaptation
Left ventricular dilation
❑ Regurgitation fraction ≥ 50%
❑ Regurgitation volume ≥ 60ml
❑ Effective regurgitation orifice ≥ 0.4cm²
❑ Vena contracta ≥ 0.7cm

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Progressive MR (Stage B):

❑ Severe MVP with normal coaptation
RHD with normal coaptation
❑ No Left ventricular dilation
❑ Regurgitation fraction < 50%
❑ Regurgitation volume < 60ml
❑ Effective regurgitation orifice < 0.4cm²
❑ Vena contracta < 0.7cm

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Symptomatic (Stage D)
 
 
 
Asymptomatic (Stage C)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Does the patient has any indications for mitral valve surgery?

LVEF 30 to ≤60% OR LVESD ≥ 40mm (Stage C2)
LVEF >60% AND LVESD < 40mm (Stage C1)

❑ With likelihood of successful repair > 95%
❑ With expected mortality < 1%

❑ New onset AF OR PASP > 50mmHg (Stage C1)

❑ With likelihood of successful repair > 95%
❑ With expected mortality < 1%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes
 
No
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Initiate medical therapy:

Vasodialators:

❑ Intravenous nitroprusside
Hydralazine

Beta blocker
Diuretics
Calcium channel blocker


Perform mitral valve surgery:
Mitral valve repair:

❑ Mostly preferred

Mitral valve replacement:

❑ In centers with surgeons who do not have expertise in mitral valve repair techniques
Mechanical valve in patients <65 years who have long-standing AF
Bioprosthetic valves in patients with contraindications to warfarin

Perform revascularisation:
❑ In cases with concurrent coronary artery disease
❑ Revascularized at the time of mitral valve surgery

 
Perform mitral valve surgery:

Mitral valve repair:

❑ Mostly preferred

Mitral valve replacement:

❑ In centers with surgeons who do not have expertise in mitral valve repair techniques
Mechanical valve in patients <65 years who have long-standing AF
Bioprosthetic valves in patients with contraindications to warfarin

Perform revascularization:
❑ For patients with concurrent coronary artery disease
❑ Revascularized at the time of mitral valve surgery

 

Periodic monitoring:
❑ In stage C1 patients with the following:

❑ With likelihood of successful repair < 95%
❑ With expected mortality > 1%

❑ Clinical evaluation:

❑ Every 3-6 months

Echocardiography:

❑ Every 6 months
 
Periodic monitoring:

❑ Clinical evaluation:

❑ Every 3-6 months

Echocardiography:

❑ Every 6 months
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Initiate anticoagulation therapy:

❑ Indications:

❑ Rheumatic mitral valve disease who have a history of systemic embolism
❑ Left atrial thrombus
❑ Paroxysmal or chronic atrial fibrillation
Mitral valve replacement

Warfarin:

❑ Target INR 2.5 (range 2.0 to 3.0)
❑ Target INR 3 (for prosthetic valve)

Aspirin:

❑ 75 to 100 mg/day
❑ For patients with recurrent embolism despite adequate anticoagulation
❑ For patients with prosthetic valve

Educate the patient about IE prophylaxis:
❑ For patients who undergo mitral valve replacement
❑ Indicated for the following procedures:

Dental procedures
Respiratory tract procedures
GI and GU procedures
 
 
 
Initiate anticoagulation therapy:

❑ Indications:

❑ Rheumatic mitral valve disease who have a history of systemic embolism
❑ Left atrial thrombus
❑ Paroxysmal or chronic atrial fibrillation
Mitral valve replacement

Warfarin:

❑ Target INR 2.5 (range 2.0 to 3.0)
❑ Target INR 3 (for prosthetic valve)

Aspirin:

❑ 75 to 100 mg/day
❑ For patients with recurrent embolism despite adequate anticoagulation
❑ For patients with prosthetic valve

Educate the patient about IE prophylaxis:
❑ For patients who undergo mitral valve replacement
❑ Indicated for the following procedures:

Dental procedures
Respiratory tract procedures
GI and GU procedures
 
 
 
Initiate anticoagulation therapy:

❑ Indications:

❑ Rheumatic mitral valve disease who have a history of systemic embolism
❑ Left atrial thrombus
❑ Paroxysmal or chronic atrial fibrillation
Mitral valve replacement

Warfarin:

❑ Target INR 2.5 (range 2.0 to 3.0)
❑ Target INR 3 (for prosthetic valve)

Aspirin:

❑ 75 to 100 mg/day
❑ For patients with recurrent embolism despite adequate anticoagulation
❑ For patients with prosthetic valve
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Chronic Secondary Mitral Regurgitation

Shown below is an algorithm summarizing the approach to the management of chronic secondary mitral regurgitation.[2].

Abbreviations: AF: Atrial fibrillation; CAD: Coronary artery disease; HF: Heart failure; IE: Infective endocarditis; LV: Left ventricle; MR: Mitral regurgitation

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Determine the etiology and initiate specific treatment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Heart failure:

❑ Click here for heart failure resident survival guide

ACE inhibitors
ARBs
Beta blockers
❑ Intravenous inotropic drugs (dobutamine)
Diuretic therapy
❑ IV vasodilators
 
Coronary artery disease:

❑ Click here for coronary artery disease medical therapy

Aspirin
ACE inhibitors
Beta blockers

Coronary angiography
❑ Click here for revascularization therapy

 
Functional MR with ventricular dyssynchrony:

Cardiac resynchronization therapy with biventricular pacing:

❑ To reduce LV end-systolic and end-diastolic dimensions
❑ To reduce mitral regurgitant jet area
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Assess the severity of MR on TTE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Severe MR:

❑ Regional wall motion abnormalities with severe tethering of mitral leaflet
❑ Annular dilation with severe loss of central coaptation of the mitral leaflets
❑ LV dilation and systolic dysfunction due to primary myocardial disease
❑ Regurgitation fraction ≥ 50%
❑ Regurgitation volume ≥ 30ml
❑ Effective regurgitation orifice ≥ 0.2 cm²

 
 
 
Progressive MR:

❑ Regional wall motion abnormalities with mild tethering of mitral leaflets
❑ Annular dilation with mild loss of central coaptation of the mitral leaflets
❑ LV dilation and systolic dysfunction due to primary myocardial disease
❑ Regurgitation fraction < 50%
❑ Regurgitation volume < 30ml
❑ Effective regurgitation orifice < 0.2 cm²

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Does the HF symptoms due to MR persist even after revascularization and medical therapy?
 
 
 
HF and coronary ischemia symptoms respond to revascularization and medical herapy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yes (Stage D)
 
No (Stage C)
 
Stage B
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Perform mitral valve surgery:

Mitral valve repair:

❑ Mostly preferred

Mitral valve replacement:

❑ In centers with surgeons who do not have expertise in mitral valve repair techniques
Mechanical valve in patients <65 years who have long-standing AF
Bioprosthetic valves in patients with contraindications to warfarin
 
Periodic monitoring:

❑ Clinical evaluation:

❑ Every 3-6 months

Echocardiography:

❑ Every 6 months

Consider mitral valve surgery:
❑ Only for patients undergoing other cardiac surgery

 
Periodic monitoring:

❑ Clinical evaluation:

❑ Every 3-6 months

Echocardiography:

❑ Every 6 months

Consider mitral valve surgery:
❑ Only for patients undergoing other cardiac surgery

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Initiate anticoagulation therapy:

❑ Indications:

❑ History of systemic embolism
❑ Left atrial thrombus
❑ Paroxysmal or chronic atrial fibrillation
Mitral valve replacement

Warfarin:

❑ Target INR 2.5 (range 2.0 to 3.0)
❑ Target INR 3 (for prosthetic valve)

Aspirin:

❑ 75 to 100 mg/day
❑ For patients with recurrent embolism despite adequate anticoagulation
❑ For patients with prosthetic valve

Educate the patient about IE prophylaxis:
❑ For patients who undergo mitral valve replacement
❑ Indicated for the following procedures:

Dental procedures
Respiratory tract procedures
GI and GU procedures
 
Initiate anticoagulation therapy:

❑ Indications:

❑ History of systemic embolism
❑ Left atrial thrombus
❑ Paroxysmal or chronic atrial fibrillation

Warfarin:

❑ Target INR 2.5 (range 2.0 to 3.0)

Aspirin:

❑ 75 to 100 mg/day
❑ For patients with recurrent embolism despite adequate anticoagulation

Educate the patient about IE prophylaxis:
❑ Only if they undergo mitral valve replacement

 
Initiate anticoagulation therapy:

❑ Indications:

❑ History of systemic embolism
❑ Left atrial thrombus
❑ Paroxysmal or chronic atrial fibrillation

Warfarin:

❑ Target INR 2.5 (range 2.0 to 3.0)

Aspirin:

❑ 75 to 100 mg/day
❑ For patients with recurrent embolism despite adequate anticoagulation

Educate the patient about IE prophylaxis:
❑ Only if they undergo mitral valve replacement

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Do's

  • Always consult a multidisciplinary heart valve team for patients with acute MR, severe chronic MR and with multiple comorbidities.
  • Consider vasodilator therapy in patients with chronic MR based upon the presence or absence of symptoms and the functional state of the left ventricle.
  • Always consider patients with chronic MR who become symptomatic to be candidates for corrective mitral surgery.
  • Perform mitral valve repair for patients with chronic severe primary MR limited to the posterior leaflet.

Don'ts

  • Don't initiate vasodilator therapy for normotensive asymptomatic patients with chronic primary MR (stages B and C1) and normal systolic LV function.
  • Don't recommend cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for routine diagnosis of MR.
  • Don't prefer mitral valve repair to replacement to chronic severe primary MR patients involving the anterior leaflet or both leaflets when a successful and durable repair cannot be accomplished.
  • Don't perform mitral valve replacement in patients with isolated severe primary MR limited to less than one half of the posterior leaflet unless mitral valve repair has been attempted and was unsuccessful.
  • Don't perform coronary angiography before valve surgery in patients who are hemodynamically unstable.
  • Avoid coronary angiography in patients of acute coronary syndrome complicated by severe acute mitral regurgitation.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Stout KK, Verrier ED (2009). "Acute valvular regurgitation". Circulation. 119 (25): 3232–41. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.782292. PMID 19564568.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Nishimura RA, Otto CM, Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Erwin JP, Guyton RA; et al. (2014). "2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines". Circulation. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000029. PMID 24589852.
  3. Anderson Y, Wilson N, Nicholson R, Finucane K (2008). "Fulminant mitral regurgitation due to ruptured chordae tendinae in acute rheumatic fever". J Paediatr Child Health. 44 (3): 134–7. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2007.01214.x. PMID 17854408.
  4. Grinberg AR, Finkielman JD, Piñeiro D, Festa H, Cazenave C (1998). "Rupture of mitral chorda tendinea following blunt chest trauma". Clin Cardiol. 21 (4): 300–1. PMID 9580528.
  5. Grenadier E, Alpan G, Keidar S, Palant A (1983). "The prevalence of ruptured chordae tendineae in the mitral valve prolapse syndrome". Am Heart J. 105 (4): 603–10. PMID 6837414.
  6. Otto CM (2001). "Clinical practice. Evaluation and management of chronic mitral regurgitation". N Engl J Med. 345 (10): 740–6. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp003331. PMID 11547744.



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