Mitral regurgitation epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Varun Kumar, M.B.B.S., Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S., Rim Halaby, M.D. [2]

Overview

Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most common valvular diseases in the general population, ranking first among valvular regurgitation abnormailities. The prevalence of MR of a severity equal to or more than mild was reported in The Framingham Heart Study as 19.0% in men and 19.1% in women. The prevalence of MR increases with age.

Prevalence

  • The Framingham Heart Study, a prospective epidemiologic study, evaluated the prevalence and severity of MR and other valvular diseases by color Doppler examinations in 1,696 men and 1,893 women.
  • The study revealed that MR is the most common valvular regurgitation in the general population, followed by tricuspid regurgitation and then aortic regurgitation.
  • The prevalence of MR (with a severity ranging from trace to ≥ moderate regurgitation) was 87.7% in men and 91.5% in women.
  • When trace regurgitation is excluded, the prevalence of MR of a severity ≥ mild was 19.0% in men and 19.1% in women.
  • The elevated prevalence of trace regurgitation can be a normal finding related to an artifact or an anatomic characteristic of the closure of the mitral valve.[1][2]

Age

  • The prevalence of MR increases with age. MR is one of the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly.
  • Shown below are tables depicting the prevalence of MR by age and severity in men and women according the results of the Framingham Heart Study.[1]
Severity of MR Prevalence of MR by age in men
26-29 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-83
No MR (%) 14.4 13.3 11.3 12.7 9.0
Trace (%) 76.7 72.9 74.6 60.3 51.7
Mild (%) 8.9 13.5 12.5 24.6 28.1
Moderate or severe (%) 0 0.3 1.6 2.4 11.2


Severity of MR Prevalence of MR by age in women
26-29 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-83
No MR (%) 14.0 8.6 9.0 7.2 5.6
Trace (%) 76.3 75 74 66.5 70.8
Mild (%) 9.7 15.5 16 24 23.6
Moderate or severe (%) 0 0.9 1 2.3 0

Gender

  • Overall, mitral regurgitation affects both males and females equally. However, there are some minor differences when age is considered.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Singh JP, Evans JC, Levy D, Larson MG, Freed LA, Fuller DL; et al. (1999). "Prevalence and clinical determinants of mitral, tricuspid, and aortic regurgitation (the Framingham Heart Study)". Am J Cardiol. 83 (6): 897–902. PMID 10190406.
  2. Singh JP, Evans JC, Levy D, Larson MG, Freed LA, Fuller DL; et al. (1999). "Prevalence and clinical determinants of mitral, tricuspid, and aortic regurgitation (the Framingham Heart Study)". Am J Cardiol. 83 (6): 897–902. PMID 10190406.



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