Metabolic syndrome risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Priyamvada Singh, M.B.B.S. [2]; Raviteja Guddeti, M.B.B.S. [3]


Common risk factors in the development of metabolic syndrome include insulin resistance, aging, positive family history, lack of physical exercise, postmenopause, smoking, low economic status, high carbohydrate diet, atypical antipsychotics like clozapine, and soft drink consumption.

Risk Factors

Common risk factors in the development of metabolic syndrome include:[1][2][3][4][5]


  1. Park YW, Zhu S, Palaniappan L, Heshka S, Carnethon MR, Heymsfield SB (2003). "The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994". Archives of Internal Medicine. 163 (4): 427–36. PMC 3146257. PMID 12588201. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Wilson PW, Kannel WB, Silbershatz H, D'Agostino RB (1999). "Clustering of metabolic factors and coronary heart disease". Archives of Internal Medicine. 159 (10): 1104–9. PMID 10335688. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. Palaniappan L, Carnethon MR, Wang Y; et al. (2004). "Predictors of the incident metabolic syndrome in adults: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study". Diabetes Care. 27 (3): 788–93. PMID 14988303. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. Pankow JS, Jacobs DR, Steinberger J, Moran A, Sinaiko AR (2004). "Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk factors in children of parents with the insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome". Diabetes Care. 27 (3): 775–80. PMID 14988301. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. Mills GW, Avery PJ, McCarthy MI; et al. (2004). "Heritability estimates for beta cell function and features of the insulin resistance syndrome in UK families with an increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes". Diabetologia. 47 (4): 732–8. doi:10.1007/s00125-004-1338-2. PMID 15298351. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. LaMonte MJ, Barlow CE, Jurca R, Kampert JB, Church TS, Blair SN (2005). "Cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome: a prospective study of men and women". Circulation. 112 (4): 505–12. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.503805. PMID 16009797. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. Lamberti JS, Olson D, Crilly JF; et al. (2006). "Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among patients receiving clozapine". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 163 (7): 1273–6. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.7.1273. PMID 16816234. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  8. Dhingra R, Sullivan L, Jacques PF; et al. (2007). "Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community". Circulation. 116 (5): 480–8. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.689935. PMID 17646581. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

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