Metabolic syndrome historical perspective

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Priyamvada Singh, M.B.B.S. [2] ; Aditya Ganti M.B.B.S. [3]


The term "metabolic syndrome" dates back to at least the late 1950s, but came into common usage in the late 1970s to describe various associations of risk factors with diabetes. In 1977, Haller coined the term "metabolic syndrome" for the first time when describing the additive effects of risk factors on atherosclerosis.

Historical Perspective


  1. Joslin EP. The prevention of diabetes mellitus. JAMA 1921;76:79–84.
  2. Kylin E. [Studies of the hypertension-hyperglycemia-hyperuricemia syndrome] (German). Zentralbl Inn Med 1923;44: 105-27.
  3. Vague J. La diffférenciacion sexuelle, facteur déterminant des formes de l'obésité. Presse Med 1947;30:339-40.
  4. Avogaro P, Crepaldi G, Enzi G, Tiengo A. Associazione di iperlipidemia, diabete mellito e obesità di medio grado. Acta Diabetol Lat 1967;4:572-590.
  5. Haller H. [Epidemiology and associated risk factors of hyperlipoproteinemia] (German). Z Gesamte Inn Med 1977;32(8):124-8. PMID 883354.
  6. Singer P. [Diagnosis of primary hyperlipoproteinemias] (German). Z Gesamte Inn Med 1977;32(9):129-33. PMID 906591.
  7. Phillips GB. Sex hormones, risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 1978;65:7-11. PMID 356599.
  8. Phillips GB. Relationship between serum sex hormones and glucose, insulin, and lipid abnormalities in men with myocardial infarction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1977;74:1729-1733. PMID 193114.
  9. Reaven GM. Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988;37:1595-607. PMID 3056758.

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