Metabolic alkalosis causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:

Overview

Disease name] may be caused by [cause1], [cause2], or [cause3].

OR

Common causes of [disease] include [cause1], [cause2], and [cause3].

OR

The most common cause of [disease name] is [cause 1]. Less common causes of [disease name] include [cause 2], [cause 3], and [cause 4].

OR

The cause of [disease name] has not been identified. To review risk factors for the development of [disease name], click here.

Causes

Low urine chloride (<10mEq/dl)

  • Patients with low urine chloride and metabolic alkalosis respond well to treatment with volume repletion with saline, thus these conditions are often referred as saline-responsive metabolic alkalosis. Some conditions of volume depletions are:
  • Other condition with similar presentation but without volume depletion is hypercapnia

Normal urine chloride (> 10mEQ/dL)

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Dilated cardiomyopathy, Malignant hypertension, Renovascular hypertension
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Aldosterone, Carbenoxolone, Diuretics, Ethacrynic Acid, Fludrocortisone, Glucocorticoids, Intravenous Pencillins, Laxatives, Lydia Pinkham's vegetable compound, Mineralocorticoids, Pramipexole, Sodium bicarbonate, Tolazoline, Tromethamine
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Cushing syndrome, Glucocorticoid-remediable hyperaldosteronism, Hyperaldosteronism, 11 beta hydroxylase deficiency, C17-hydroxylase deficiency, Conn syndrome, Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, Adrenal adenoma, Adrenal carcinoma
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Gastric fistula, Villous adenoma, VIPoma, Congenital chloride diarrhea, Cystic fibrosis
Genetic 11 beta hydroxylase deficiency, Bartter syndrome, C17-hydroxylase deficiency, Congenital chloride diarrhea, Cystic fibrosis, Gietelman syndrome, Glucocorticoid receptor defect, Liddle syndrome, SeSAME syndrome
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Massive blood transfusion, Nasogastric suction
Infectious Disease No underlying causes
Musculoskeletal / Ortho No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional / Metabolic Hypercalcemia, Hypokalemia, Hypomagnesemia, Refeeding syndrome, Glucocorticoid receptor defect, Glycyrrhizic acid, Licorice
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Adrenal adenoma, Adrenal carcinoma, Conn syndrome, Hemangiopericytoma,VIPoma, Juxtaglomerular cell tumor
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity Aldosterone, Carbenoxolone, Diuretics, Fludrocortisone, Glucocorticoids, Intravenous Pencillins, Laxatives, Lydia Pinkham's vegetable compound, Mineralocorticoids, Sodium bicarbonate, Tolazoline, Tromethamine
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Cystic fibrosis
Renal / Electrolyte Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, Hypokalemic distal renal tubular acidosis, Juxtaglomerular cell tumor, Milk-alkali syndrome, Renovascular hypertension, Bartter syndrome, Gietelman syndrome, Liddle syndrome, Adrenal adenoma, Adrenal carcinoma
Rheum / Immune / Allergy No underlying causes
Sexual Cystic fibrosis
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Chewing tobacco, Glycyrrhizic acid, Licorice, Posthypercapnia, Vomiting, Laxatives, Refeeding syndrome, Milk-alkali syndrome

Causes in Alphabetical Order


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